Experts Call for Local and Regional Control of Sites for Radioactive Waste
The withdrawal of Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a potential nuclear waste repository1 has reopened the debate over how and where to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. In an article in the July 10 issue of Science， University of Michigan2 geologist Rodney Ewing and Princeton University3 nuclear physicist Frank von Hippel argue that， although federal agencies should set standards and issue licenses for the approval of nuclear facilities， local communities and states should have the final approval on the siting of these facilities. The authors propose the development of multiple sites that would service the regions where nuclear reactors are located.
“The main goal…， should be to provide the Unied States with multiple process that requires acceptance by host communities and states，” the authors write.
Ewing and yon Hippel also analyze the reasons why Yucca Mountain， selected by Congress4 in 1987 as the only site to be investigated for long-term nuclear waste disposal， finally was shelved5 after more than three decades of often controversial debate. The reasons include the site's geological problems， management problems， important changes in the Environmental Protection Agency's standard， unreliable funding and the failure to involve local communities in the decision-making process.
Going forward， efforts should be directed at locating storage facilities in the nation's northeastern， southeastern， midwestern and western regions， and states within a given region should be responsible for developing solutions that suit their particular circumstances. Transportation of nuclear waste over long distances， which was a concern with the Yucca Mountain site， would be less of a problem because temporary storage or geological disposal sites could be located closer to reactors.
“This regional approach would be similar to the current approach in Europe， where spent nuclear fuel6 and high-level nuclear waste7 from about 150 reactors and reprocessing plants is to be moved to a number of geological repositories in a variety of rock types8，” said Rodney Ewing， who has written extensively about the impact of nuclear waste management on the environment and who has analyzed safety assessment criteria for the controversial Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.
radioactive adj.放射性的 shelve v.搁置 repository n.储藏地，储藏室 controversial adj.有争议的
geologist n.地质学家 reactor n.反应堆，反应器 geological adj.地质的
1. The withdrawal of Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a potential nuclear waste repository： Nevada's Yucca Mountain：美国境内的内华达州尤卡山。nuclear waste repository：核废物处理库。美国能源部部长朱棣文 2009 年 3 月 5 日表示，拟在内华 达州尤卡山建设的核废物最终处理库将不再是美国储存高放废物的一个选项。
2. University of Michigan：美国密歇根大学，建于 1817 年。
3. Princeton University：美国普林斯顿大学，建于 1746 年。
4. Congress： 美国国会，美国最高立法机关，由参议院（Senate）和众议院（House of Representatives）组成。
5. …was shelved：……被束之高阁。
6. spent nuclear fuel：也叫做 used nuclear fuel，一般译为“乏核燃料”。
7. high-level nuclear waste：高（强度）放（射性）核废物。
8. geological repositories in a variety of rock types：各种不同岩层中的地质处置 库。geological repositories 指的是地表以下 300～1500 米的稳定的地质体中建造的 用于最终处置高放废物和乏核燃料的工程设施。处置库是一个多重屏障系统，工程屏障 由废物体、废物罐、外包装和缓冲回填材料组成，而天然屏障则是能有效阻滞放射性核 素迁移的地质体，包括花岗岩、粘土岩、凝灰岩和岩盐等。许多专家认为地质处置是安 全的，技术上是可行的，对环境是无害的。
1. Which of the following words can best substitute the word “withdrawal” in the first paragraph？
A Retirement. B Canceling. C Replaced. D Disposal.
2. According to Rodney Ewing and Frand von Hippel， where to locate nuclear facilities
A should be approved by the federal government.
B should be approved by local people and states. C should be approved by Congress.
D is not an important issue.
3. What is NOT true about the 1987 decision by Congress concerning siting of nuclear waste disposal？
A Yucca Mountain was selected as the only site for a nuclear waste repository.
B The selection of Yucca Mountain for nuclear waste disposal caused much controversy.
C The decision by Congress was put aside due to a number of problems. D The decision by Congress was accepted by local communities.
4. What does the author of the essay in the fourth paragraph want to say？
A Efforts should be made to solve the problems of transportation of nuclear waste over long distance.
B Efforts should be made to develop as many nuclear disposal sites in the US as possible.
C Efforts should be made to develop nuclear disposal sites to suit the circumstances of the region.
D Efforts should be made to build up temporary nuclear disposal sites as possible.
5. What is meant by “regional approach” as mentioned in the last paragraph？
A Waste disposal sites are located close to reactors and in places suitable for the regional circumstances.
B Geological repositories are located in a variety of rock types.
C Spent nuclear fuel and high –level nuclear waste is moved to developing countries.
D Waste disposal sites are located far away from reactors.
1. B withdrawal 是个多义词，在句子中的意思是“撤销”或“中止”。
2. B 第二段中提到的两个科学家认为，联邦政府可以设定核设备的标准，以及颁发许可 证，但是州政府或地方政府在选址问题上应该有最终决定权。
3. D 第三段的第一个句子包含了 A、B 和 C 所述内容。
4. C 尽管第四段提到了尤卡山的确存在长距离运送核废料的问题，但不是这段的主要内 容，所以 A 不是正确选择。作者说，要在全国东西南北各地区建造核废料处置库，但没 有说要尽量多的建造，所以 B 也不是正确选择。作者想表达的意思是，要在全国各地区 建造核废料处置库，但州政府必须根据地方特殊情况制定方案，包括最后一句中所说的 “靠近核反应堆”的临时处置库。所以，C 是正确的。D 也不是作者的意思。
5. A This regional approach 的意思是：地域性方法，指的是前一段中所表述的内容， 即，地方政府应当考虑当地的特殊环境，对核废物的处置地选择负责。B、C 和 D 的表述 内容都是错误理解。