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2010年职称英语考试(理工类)阅读理解(1)

2010-07-08 11:24  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

    Citizen Scientists

    Understanding how nature responds to climate change will require monitoring key life cycle1 events-flowering, the appearance of leaves, the first frog calls of the spring - all around the world. But ecologists can't be everywhere so they're turning to non-scientists, sometimes called citizen scientists, for help.

    Climate scientists are not present everywhere. Because there are so many places in the world and not enough scientists to observe all of them, they're asking for your help in observing signs of climate change across the world. The citizen scientist movement encourages ordinary people to observe a very specific research interest - birds, trees, flowers budding, etc. - and send their observations to a giant database to be observed by professional scientists. This helps a small number of scientists track a large amount of data that they would never be able to gather on their own. Much like citizen journalists helping large publications cover a hyper-local beat2, citizen scientists are ready for the conditions where they live. All that's needed to become one is a few minutes each day or each week to gather data and send it3 in.

    A group of scientists and educators launched an organization last year called the National Pheonology4 Network. “Phenology” is what scientists call the study of the timing of events in nature.

    One of the group's first efforts relies on scientists and non-scientists alike to collect data about plant flowering and leafing every year. The program, called Project BudBurst, collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the United States. People participating in the project - which is open to everyone - record their observations on the Project BudBurst website.

    “People don't have to be plant experts -they just have to look around and see what's in their neighborhood,” says Jennifer Schwartz, an education consultant with the project. “As we collect this data, we'll be able to make an estimate of how plants and eommunities5 of plants and animals will respond as the climate changes.”

    词汇:

    Frog n. 蛙 Ecologist n.生态学家 Phenology n.物候学 Bud v.发芽,萌芽;n.芽,花蕾

    Neighbor(u)rhood n.近邻;邻近地区 Database n.数据库

    Professional adj.专业的,职业的;n.职业选手,专业人员

    注释:

    1. life cycle:生命周期,即生物发展过程的系列变化。

    2. hyper-local beat: beat 在此做名词用,意思是:某类新闻报道,如,a business beat; 商业专题报道。这是近年来出现的新词。Hyper-local beat 即 hyper-local news,指 的是被传统新闻报道方式所忽略的小型社区或居民居住区里发生的相关信息报道。在美 国由此而诞生了 hyper-local news website,专门对主流媒体所没有覆盖的地区所发生 的事件进行报道,其形式多以网民,即短文中所提及的 citizen journalists,上传所 在社区发生的事件报道、照片或视频为主。这是网络时代产生的又一新生事物。

    3. data 是复数形式,但常用做单数,所以这里的代词是 it.另参见 最后 一段“As we collect this data, ……”。这里的 data 也用作单数。

    4. phenology:物候学或生物气候学,是气候学和生态学的边缘学科,主要研究气候环境 对生物的影响。

    5. communities:生态学词汇:生物群落,记载比较相似的环境条件下在特定自然区域或 环境中生活和互相影响的一群植物和动物。

    练习:

    1. Ecologists turn to non-scientist citizens for help because they need them

    A) to provide their personal life cycles. B) to observe the life cycle of plants.

    C) to collect data of the life cycle of living things. D) to teach children knowledge about climate change.

    2. What are citizen scientists asked to do?

    A) To develop a specific research interest and become professional scientists.

    B) To send their research observations to a professional database.

    C) To increase their knowledge about climate change.

    D) To keep a record of their research observations.

    3. In “All that's needed to become one…… (paragraph 2) ”, what does the word “one” stands for?

    A) a citizen journalist. B) a citizen scientist. C) a scientist. D) a citizen.

    4. What is NOT true of Project BudBurst?

    A) Only experts can participate in it. B) Everybody can participate in it.

    C) It collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants. D) It has its own website.

    5. What is the final purpose of Project BudBurst?

    A) To study when plants will have their first buds.

    B) To find out the types of plants in the neighborhood.

    C) To collect life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the

    United States.

    D) To investigate how plants and animals will respond as the climate changes.

    答案与题解:

    1. C第一段和第二段的第一句告诉我们,要在世界范围内观察气候对大自然中生物生命周 期的影响,数量有限的科学家不可能足迹遍及天下,为此科学家求助于普通公民的参与 . 所以 C 是正确选择。

    2. B第二段第三句中 encourage ordinary people to observe…的主语是 The citizen scientist movement,即公民参与科学观察的运动。所以 D 不是正确选择。A 和 C 不符 合文章的句意,因此也不是正确的选择。这个句子的大意是:这一运动鼓励普通公民根 据自己的兴趣爱好进行科学观察,并将观察结果送交数据库,让专门领域的科学家做进 一步的观察。B 正确表达了这个意思。

    3. B one 在 这 里 是 一 个 代 词 , 其 前 置 词 是 citizen scientists , 而 不 是 citizen journalists,这里的 one 指的是 one of citizen scientists.所以 A、C 和 D 都不是 正确选择。这个句子的意思是,只要每天或每星期花上几分钟收集数据并发送出去,就能成为一个公民科学家。

    4. A 文章最后一段说,这个计划向所有人开放(open to everyone),所以应选择 A.B,C,D 所述内容都在该段中提到。

    5. D C 表述的内容是 Project Budburst 所要做的工作,但其最终的目的不仅仅是收集数 据,而是研究气候变化对生物生命周期的影响。因此,D 才是正确答案。

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