Facts about Stroke
1 Every 45 seconds，someone in America has a stroke.Every 3.1 minutes，someone dies of one.Stroke killed an estimated 167，661 people in 2000 and is the nation's third leading cause of death，ranking behind diseases of the heart and all forms of cancer.Stroke is a leading cause of serious，long-term disability in the United States.
2 Stroke is a type of cardiovascular（心血管的）disease.It affects the arteries（动脉）leading to and within the brain.A stroke occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients（营养物）to the brain is either blocked by a clot（凝块）or bursts.When that happens，part of the brain cannot get the blood（and oxygen）it needs，so it starts to die.
3 The brain is an extremely complex organ that controls various body functions.If a stroke occurs and blood flow can't reach the region that controls a particular body function，that part of the body won't work as it should.If the stroke occurs toward the back of the brain，for instance，it's likely that some disability involving vision will result.The effects of a stroke depend primarily on the location of the obstruction（阻塞）and the extent of brain tissue affected.
4 The American Stroke Association has identified several factors that increase the risk of stroke.The more risk factors a person has，the greater the chance that he or she will have a stroke.Some of these you can't control，such as increasing age，family health history，race，and prior stroke.But you can change or treat other risk factors to lower your risk.Factors resulting from lifestyle or environment can be modified with a healthcare provider's help.Some of these include：high blood pressure，current smoking，heart disease，and high red blood cell count.
5 A stroke can happen to anyone at any moment.In fact about 600，000 people have strokes every year.For many years，there was no hope for those suffering a stroke.However，recent breakthroughs have led to new treatments.For the treatments to work，the person must get to a hospital immediately.
A Effects of a stroke
B Annual cost of stroke in the US
C Definition and description of a stroke
D Breakthroughs in treatment
E Risk factors of stroke
F Warning signs of a stroke
27.When a stroke occurs，the arteries leading to and within the brain__________.
28.A person's vision is likely to be affected if a stroke__________.
29.Some people can reduce their risk of stroke if they__________.
30.New treatments are now available to people who__________.
A suffer from a stroke
B will be affected
C change their lifestyles
D will take place
E occurs at the back of his/her brain
F controls various body functions
23.C 24.A 25.E 26.D 27.B 28.E 29.C 30.A
English and English Community
1 There is no doubt that English is a useful language. The people who speak English today make up the largest speech community in the world with the exception of speakers of Chinese.
2 A speech community is similar to other kinds of communities. The people who make up the community share a common language. Often they live side by side， as they-do in a neighborhood （街坊）， a village， or a city. More often they form a whole country. National boundaries， however， are not always the same as the boundaries of a speech community. A speech community is any group of people who speak the same language no matter where they happen to live.
3 We may say that anyone who speaks English belongs to the English speech community. For convenience （方便）， we may divide the speakers into two groups： one ig which the speakers use English as their native language， the other in which the speakers learn [English as a second language for the purpose of education， commerce， and so on.
4 Learning a second language extends one's vision and expands the mind. The history and literature of a second language record the real and fictional （虚构的） lives of people and their culture； a knowledge of them adds to our ability to understand and to feel as they feel. Learning English as a second language provides another means of communication through which the window of the entire English speech community becomes a part of our heritage.
23 Paragraph 1_________.
24 Paragraph 2_________.
25 Paragraph 3_________.
26 Paragraph 4_________.
A Threat Posed by English
B Definition of a Speech Community
C Benefits of Learning a Second Language
D Advantages of Learning Chinese
E Two Groups of the English Speech Community
F A Widely Used Language
27 Overall there are more speakers of Chinese than of_________.
28 The boundaries of a speech community may be different from_________.
29 People who live in different places may belong to_________.
30 Many people learn English as_________.
A a second language
B the same language
C the same speech community
D any other language
E national boundaries
F a part of one's heritage
23. F 24. B 25. E 26. C
27. D 28. E 29. C 30. A