Are some people born clever，and others born stupid？ Or is intelligence developed by our environment and our experience？ Strangely enough， the answer to these questions is yes. To some extent our intelligence is given to us at birth， and no amount of education can make a genius out of a child born with low intelligence. On the other hand， a child who lives in a boring environment will develop his intelligence less than one who lives in rich and varied surroundings. Thus the limits of person‘s intelligence are fixed at birth， whether or not he reaches those limits will depend on his environment. This view， now held by most experts， can be supported in a number of ways.
It is easy to show that intelligence is to some extent something we are born with. The closer the blood relationship between two people， the closer they are likely to be intelligent. Thus if we take two unrelated people at random from population， it is likely that their degree of intelligence will be completely different. If， on the other hand， we take two identical twins， they will very likely to be as intelligent as each other. Relations like brothers and sisters， parents and children， usually have similar intelligence， and this clearly suggests that intelligence depends on birth.
Imagine now that we take two identical twins and put them in different environments. We might send one， for example， to a university and the other to a factory where the work is boring. We would soon find differences in intelligence developing， and this indicates that environment as well as birth plays a part. This conclusion is also suggested by the fact that people who live in close contact with each other， but who are not related at all are likely to have similar degree of intelligence.
31 The writer is in favor of the view that man‘s intelligence is given to him______.
A at birth
B through education
C both at birth and through education
D neither at birth nor through education
32 If a child is born with low intelligence， he can______.
A become a genius
B still become a genius if he should be given special education
C reach his intelligence limits in rich surroundings
D not reach his intelligence in his life
33 In the second paragraph， the underlined sentence means “if we______.”
A pick any two persons
B take out two different persons
C choose two persons who are relative
D choose two persons with different intelligence
34 The example of the twins going to a university and to a factory separately shows______.
A the importance of their intelligence
B environment influences
C the importance of their positions
D the part that birth plays
35 which is true according to the passage？
A Environment plays a more important role than birth
B two identical twins have the same intelligence no matter where they are
C two unrelated persons is more likely to have different intelligence
D Education has no effect on low intelligence person
第二篇 Hair Detectives
Scientists have found a way to use hair to figure out where a person is from and where that person has been. The finding could help solve crimes， among other useful applications.
Water is central to the new technique. Our bodies break water down into its parts： hydrogen and oxygen. Atoms of these two elements end up in our tissues and hair.
But not all water is the same. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms can vary in how much they weigh. Different forms of a single element are called isotopes. And depending on where you live， tap Water contains unique proportions of the heavier and lighter isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen.
Might hair record these watery quirks？ Thats what James R. Ehleringer， an environmental scientist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City， wondered.
To find out， he and his colleagues collected hair from barbers and hair stylists in 65 cities in 18 states across the United States. The researchers assumed that the hair they collected came from people who lived in the area.
Even though people drink a lot of bottled water these days， the scientists found that hair overwhelmingly reflected the concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in local tap water. That‘s probably because people usually cook their food in the local water. What’s more， most of the other liquids people drink including milk and soft drinks contain large amounts of water that also come from sources within their region.
Scientists already knew how the composition of water varies throughout the country. Ehleringer and colleagues combined that information with their results to predict the composition of hair in people from different regions. One hair sample used in Ehleringer‘s study came from a man who had recently moved from Beijing， China， to Salt Lake City. As his hair grew， it reflected his change in location.
The new technique can‘t point to exactly where a person is from， because similar types of water appear in different regions that span a broad area. But authorities can now use the information to analyze hair samples from criminals or crime victims and narrow their search for clues.
36 Which of the following about tap water is NOT correct？
A Tap water reflects the concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in different regions.
B Tap water contains unique proportions of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen.
C Tap water is a kind of soft drink in the United States
D Tap water is used to cook food.
37 James R. Ehleringer tried to find out
A if tap water contains unique proportions of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen.
B if it is possible to collect hair samples across the country.
C if our bodies break water down into its parts.
D if the composition of hair can indicate exactly where people are from.
38 Which of the following statements is meant by the writer？
A Ehleringer‘s research proved successful in China
B Ehleringer failed in his research.
C Ehleringer can be a successful detective.
D Ehleringer was successful in his research.
39 What can we know from the last paragraph？
A The new technique can tell precisely where a person lives.
B Water supplied in different regions all come from the same source.
C Types of water used in different regions provide useful information for the police.
D Hair samples provide the most important clues to identify crimes.
40 Which of the following is closest in meaning to the title？
A Human hair may help detectives to solve crimes.
B Animal hair may help detectives to solve crimes.
C Human hair‘s features.
D Most detectives are hair specialists.
第三篇Outside-the-classroom Learning Makes a Big Difference
Putting a bunch of college students in charge of a $300，000 Dance Marathon， fundraiser surely sounds a bit risky. When you consider the fact that the money is supposed to be given to children in need of medical care， you might call the idea crazy.
Most student leaders dont want to spend a large amount of time on something they care little about， said 22-year-old University of Florida student Darren Heitner. He was the Dance Marathons operations officer for two years.
Yvonne Fangmeyer， director of the student organization office at the University of Wisconsin， conducted a survey in February of students involved in campus organizations. She said the desire for friendship was the most frequently cited reason for joining.
At large universities like Fangmeyer‘s， which has more than 40，000 students， the students first of all want to find a way to “belong in their own corner of campus”。
Katie Rowley， a Wisconsin senior， confirms the surveys findings. “I wanted to make the campus feel smaller by joining an organization where I could not only get involved on campus but also find a group of friends.”
All of this talk of friendship， however， does not mean that students aren‘t thinking about their resumes. “I think that a lot of people do join to ’fatten up their resume‘，” said Heitner. “At the beginning of my college career， I joined a few of these organizations， hoping to get a start in my leadership roles.”
But without passion student leaders can have a difficult time trying to weather the storms that come. For example， in April， several student organizations at Wisconsin teamed up for an event designed to educate students about homelessness and poverty. Student leaders had to face the problem of solving disagreements， moving the event because of rainy weather， and dealing with the university‘s complicated bureaucracy.
“Outside-of the classroom learning really makes a big difference，” Fangmeyer said.
41 An extracurricular activity like raising a fund of $300，000 is risky because most student leaders
A are lazy
B are stupid
C are not rich enough
D will not take an interest in it
42 American students join campus organizations mostly for
A making a difference
B gaining experience
C building friendship
D improving their resumes
43 Who is Katie Rowley？
A She‘s a senior professor
B She‘s a senior student
C She‘s a senior official
D She‘s a senior citizen
44 What do student leaders need to carry an activity through to a successful end？
45 The phrasal verb “fatten up” in paragraph 6 could be best replaced by