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职称英语易混词汇辨析

2010-05-13 17:17  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

  1. clothes, cloth, clothing

  clothes 统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数;cloth 指布,为不可数名词;clothing 服装的总称,指一件衣服用a piece of, an article of .

  2. incident, accident

  incident 指小事件,accident 指不幸的事故。如:He was killed in the accident.

  3. amount, number

  amount 后接不可数名词, number 后接可数名词,如:a number of students.

  4. family, house, home

  home 指家,包括住处和家人,house 指房子、住宅,family 指家庭成员,如:My family is a happy one.

  5. sound, voice, noise

  sound 指自然界各种各样的声音,voice 指人的嗓音,noise 指噪音,如:I hate the loud noise outside.

  6. photo, picture, drawing

  photo 指用照相机拍摄的照片,picture 可指相片、图片、电影片,drawing 指画的画,如:Let's go and see a good picture.

  7. vocabulary, word

  vocabulary 指词汇,一个人拥有的单词量;word 指具体的单词。如:He has a large vocabulary.

  8. population, people

  population 指人口、人数,people 指具体的人,如:China has a large population.

  9. weather, climate

  weather 指一天内具体的天气状况,climate 指长期的气候状况,如:The climate here is not good for you.

  10. road, street, path, way

  road 指具体的公路、马路,street 指街道,path 指小路、小径,way 指道路、途径。如:take this road; in the street; show me the way to the museum.

  11. course, subject

  course 指课程(可包括多门科目),subject 指科目(具体的学科),如:a summer course.

  12. custom, habit

  custom 指传统风俗、习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接to do;habit 指生活习惯,习惯成自然,后接of doing. 如:I've got the habit of drinking a lot.

  13. cause, reason

  cause 指造成某一事实或现象的直接原因,后接 of sth./doing sth.;reason用来解释某种现象或结果的理由,后接for sth./doing sth., 如:the reason for being late.

  14. exercise, exercises, practice

  exercise 指运动、锻炼(不可数),exercises 指练习(可数),practice 指(反复做的)练习。如:Practice makes perfect.

  15. class, lesson

  作“课”解时,两者可以替换;指课文用lesson,指班级或全体学生用class,如:lesson 6; class 5.

  16. speech, talk, lecture

  speech 指在公共场所所做的经过准备的较正式的演说,talk 指日常生活中的一般的谈话、讲话,lecture 指学术性的演讲、讲课,如:a series of lecture on…

  17. officer, official

  officer 指部队的军官,official 指政府官员,如:an army officer .

  18. work, job

  二者均指工作,work 不可数,job 可数,如:a good job.

  19. couple, pair

  couple 主要指人或动物,pair 多指由两部分组成的东西,如:a pair of trousers.

  20. country, nation, state, land

  country 侧重指版图、疆域,nation 指人民、国民、民族,state 侧重指政府、政体,land 指国土、国家。如:The whole nation was sad at the news.

  21. cook, cooker

  cook 指厨师,cooker 指厨具,如:He is a good cook.

  22. damage, damages

  damage 是不可数名词,指损害、损失;damages 为复数形式,指赔偿金,如:$900 damages.

  23. police, policeman

  police 是警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词;policeman 指某个具体的警察。如:The police are questioning everyone in the house.

  24. problem, question

  problem 常和困难连系,前面的动词常为think about, solve, raise;question 常和疑问连系,多和ask, answer 连用。

  25. man, a man

  man 指人类,a man 指一个男人。如:Man will conquer nature.

  26. chick, chicken

  二者均可指小鸡,chicken 还可以当鸡肉,如:The chicken is delicious.

  27. telegram, telegraph

  当“电报”解时,telegram 指具体的,telegraph 指抽象的,如:a telegram, by telegraph.

  28. trip, journey, travel, voyage

  travel 是最常用的,trip 指短期的旅途,journey 指稍长的旅途,voyage 指海上航行,如:a three-day trip.

  29. sport, game

  sport 多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球、游泳、打猎、赛马等;game 指决定胜负的游戏,通常有一套规则。如:His favorite sport is swimming.

  30. price, prize

  price 指价格,prize 指奖、奖品、奖金,如:win the first prize The price is high/low.

  31. a number of, the number of

  a number of 指“许多”,谓语动词用复数。the number of 指“…的数目”,谓语动词用单数。如:The number of students is increasing.

  32. in front of, in the front of

  in front of 指范围外的前面,in the front of 指范围内的前面,如:In the front of the room sits a boy.

  33. of the day, of a day

  of the day 指每一天的、当时的、当代的,of a day 指暂时的、不长久的,如:a famous scientist of the day.

  34. three of us, the three of us

  three of us 我们(不止三个)中的三个,the three of us 我们三个(就三个人)。如:The three of us——Tom, Jack and I went to the cinema.

  35. by bus, on the bus

  by bus 表手段、方式,不用冠词;on the bus 表范围。如:They went there by bus.

  36. for a moment, for the moment

  for a moment “片刻、一会儿”,for the moment“暂时、一时”,如:Thinking for a moment, he agreed.

  37. next year, the next year

  next year 将来时间状语,the next year 过去将来时间状语,如:He said he would go abroad the next year.

  38. more than a year, more than one year

  more than a year“一年多”,more than one year“超过一年”(两年或三年等)

  39. take advice, take the(one's) advice

  take advice“征求意见”,take the advice“接受忠告”,如:He refused to take the advice and failed again.

  40. take air, take the air

  take air“传播、走漏”,take the air“到户外去、散步”,如:We take the air every day.

  41. in a word, in words

  in a word“总之、一句话”, in words“口头上”,如:In a word, you are right.

  42. in place of, in the place of

  in place of“代替”,in the place of“在…地方”,如:A new building is built in the place of the old one.

  43. in secret, in the secret

  in secret“秘密地、暗自地、偷偷地”,一般用作状语;in the secret 指知道内情、知道秘密,一般用作表语。如:My mother was in the secret from t

  he beginning.

  44. a girl, one girl

  a girl 可泛指所有女孩, one girl 指一个女孩,如:Can one girl carry such a big box?

  45. take a chair, take the chair

  take a chair“相当于”,sit down“坐下”,take the chair“开始开会”

  46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea

  go to sea“当海员、出航”,by sea“乘船、由海路”, by the sea“在海边”,如:go by sea.

  47. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher

  the doctor and teacher 指一个人,既是医生又是老师;the doctor and the teacher 指两个人,一个医生和一个老师。

  48. in office, in the office

  in office“在职的”,in the office“在办公室里”,如:He is in office, not out of office.

  49. in bed, on the bed

  in bed“卧在床上”,on the bed“在床上”,如:The book is on the bed. He is ill in bed.

  50. in charge of, in the charge of

  in charge of“管理、负责照料”,in the charge of“由……照料”,如:He is in charge of the matter. The matter is in the charge of her.

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