Musical Training Can Improve Communication Skills
American scientists say musical training seems to improve communication skills and language retardation. They found that developing musical skills involves the same process in the brain as learning how to speak. The scientists believe that1 could help children with learning disabilities.
1 She says musical training involves putting together different kinds of information, such as hearing music, looking at musical notes, touching an instrument and watching other musicians. This process is not much different from learning how to speak. 2
She further explains musical training and learning to speak each make us think about what we are doing2. She says speech and music pass through a structure of the nervous system called the brain stem. 3 Until recently, experts have thought the brain stem could not be developed or changed. But Professor Kranss and her team found that musical training can improve a person's brain stem activity.
The study involved individuals with different levels of musical ability. They were asked to wear an electrical device that measures brain activity. The Individuals wore the electrode while they watched a video of someone speaking and a person playing a musical instrument -- the cello. 4 The study found that the more years of training people had, the more sensitive they were to the sound and rhythm of the music3. Those who were involved in musical activities were the same people in whom the improvement of sensory events was the strongest. 5 She says using music to improve listening skills could mean they hear sentences and understand facial expressions better.
retardation n. 滞后 cello n. 大提琴
note n. 音符 rhythm n. 节奏
electrode n. 电极 sensory adj. 知觉的，感官的
1．scientists believe that could help children with learning disabilities：科学家发现，音乐训练、对学习上有障碍的儿童有帮助。that是从句“that could help children with learning disabilities”中的主语。that指代上一句的developing musical skills involves the same process in the brain as learning how to speak。with learning disabilities是定语，修饰children。
2．musical training and learning to speak each make US think about what we are doin9：音乐训练和学习说话这两者都使我们思考我们正在所做的事。each指musical trainin9和learning to speak中的任何一个。句子的主语是musical training and learning to speak，所以，谓语动词是复数的。
3．the more years of training people had，the more sensitive they were to the sound and rhythm of the music：人们接受音乐训练的年份越长，其对音乐声音和节奏的敏感性也越高。people是前半旬中的主语。
A Both involve different senses.
B Nina Kraus is a neurobiologist (~E~:~) at Northwestern University in Illinois.
C Some disabled children attended~ the musical training Class.
D It shows the importance of musical training to children with learning disabilities.
E Professor Krauss says cellos have sound qualities similar to some of the sounds that are important with speech.
F The brain stem controls our ability to hear.
1．B “空l”后面的句子的主语是代词she，说明“空l”的句子中有一个女性的名字。选项B有Nina Kraus(Nina“尼娜”是女性名字)，句子的内容是介绍Nina Kraus，与后面句子的意思配得上。B是答案。
involve different senses”解释了为什么这么说，因为两者都涉及不同的感官，也就是上文所列举的“hearing music”(耳听)，“looking at musical notes／watching other musicians”(眼看)，“touching an instrument”(手触)等。
3．F 在六个选项中，选项F的句子中出现特指的the brain stem，说明前文已出现过这个词语。这是篇章写作中常用的词汇连接方式。从意义上看，选项F的句子是解释上文提到的brain stem的功能。上下文意思连贯，所以是答案。
4．E 同上面第三题的解释一样，选项E的句子中出现特指的the cellos，与上一句的cello相呼应，该句说明科学家为什么要选择大提琴作为音乐训练的乐器，上下文意思连贯，所以E是答案。 ，