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02年职称英语考试理工类(B级)试题及答案

2008-11-28 15:59  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

  第l部分:词汇选项 (第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面共有15个句子,每个句子中均有1个词或短语画有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的4个选项中选择1个与画线部分意义最相近的词或短语。答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  1 The nursery is bright and cheerful.

  A pleasant B colorful

  C fashionable D different

  2 He is but a child.

  A probably B not

  C only D hardly

  3 The price of vegetables varies according to the weather.

  A jumps B rises

  C falls D changes

  4 Did you do that to irritate her?

  A tease B attract

  C annoy D protect

  5 The old lady let her flat to an English couple.

  A offered B rented

  C provided D sold

  6 A ship was reported to be in distress a few miles out at sea.

  A disorder B formation

  C service D danger

  7 You should cultivate the habit of reading carefully.

  A invent B begin

  C develop D initiate

  8 Merge the following two short sentences into one new sentence.

  A Split B Combine

  C Break D Divide

  9 His handwriting is flowing and graceful

  A pleasing B formal

  C informal D flowery

  10 The sisters can't tolerate each other.

  A bear B hate

  C like D criticize

  11 The dentist has decided to extract her bad tooth.

  A pull out B repair

  C take D dig

  12 The child's abnormal behavior puzzled the doctor.

  A funny B frightening

  C repeated D unusual

  13 Gunpowder was used extensively in firearms prior to 1990.

  A in B around

  C from D before

  14 Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree to which they can be deliberately controlled and modified.

  A sufficiently B noticeably

  C intentionally D absolutely

  15 Foreign money can be converted into the local currency at this bank.

  A altered B changed

  C bought D sold

  第2部分:阅读判断 (第16-22题,每题1分,共7分)

  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后列出7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把A涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题卡上把B涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把C涂黑。

  Megaplane(巨型飞机)

  The Boeing Corp.and Europe's Airbus consortium(财团)are preparing to offer bigger airplanes to the world's airlines.Now that talks on a ioint project have broken down,Boeing is pushing a stretched(拓展的)version of the 747,and Airbus is designing'an all-new aircraft,known as theA3XX.

  Seating 550 passengers in the basic model,and 650 in a stretched version.the 1.2 million pound A3XX will not only be the largest airplane in the world,but it,will also be one of the most advanced.The outer wings and the horizontal stabilizer(as big as a smaller jet's wing)will be made of carbon-fiber composite materials,and will be the largest such structures on any aircraft except the B-2 stealth bomber(隐形轰炸机).Metal skins will be welded (焊接)together with lasers,removing thousands of fasteners.

  When a strong wind strikes the A3XX's 260-foot wing.movable control surfaces will prevent it from flexing(扭曲)like a giant spring.This will make the ride smoother and will save weight by reducing the load on the wing spars(翼梁).A flexible.skinned flap(副翼)will subtly change the wing's curvature(曲面)to match the airplane's changing weight as it bums fuel on each journey.

  The A3XX will carry up to 1,600 meals,filling more than,1 00 food and beverage(饮料) carts.To make more room for passengers,Airbus plans to put the carts in the lower hold;

  automatic conveyors and elevators will deliver them to the two passenger decks.Airlines have asked Airbus to look at extra features ranging from lower-deck sleeper cabins to a children's

  playroom.

  Airbus expects to offer the A3XX to airlines in 1998,and deliver the first aircraft in 2003.

  16 The basic model ofA3XX can carry more than 500 passengers.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  17 A3XX will fly faster while consuming less oil.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  18 A3XX will be bigger than the B-2 stealth bomber.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  19 No fasteners will be used in bullding A3XX because all components will be welded together.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  20 The wing of A3XX will not be spoiled surfaces are designed to be movable.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  21 Airbus plans to build a mini-restaurant in the lower hold of A3XX.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  22 The first A3XX will be available in 2003.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  第3部分:概括大意与完成句子 (第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第3~6段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确选项,分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  Electromagnetic Energy

  1.White light seems to be a combination of all colors.The energy that comes from a source of light is not limited to the kind of energy you can see.Heat is given off by a flame or an electric light.On a cloudy day it is possible to get a sunburn even though you feel coo1.Visible light and the kinds of energy that produce warmth and sunburn are examples electromagnetic energy.

  2.The sun is 93 million miles from the earth.Yet we can use energy from the sun because electromagnetic energy travels through space.

  3.Many other kinds of energy are also types of electromagnetic energy.Radio,television,and radar signals travel from transmitters to receivers as low-energy electromagnetic waves . Intrared(红外线的)radiation is an electromagnetic wave.When it is absorbed by matter,heat is produced.Waves of infrared and visible light have more energy than waves of radio,television,or radar.Ultraviolet rays(紫外线)and,X-rays are electromagnetic waves with even greater amounts of energy . Infrared radiation is used in cooking food and heating buildings . Sunlight and electric lights are part of our requirements for normal living.Ultraviolet radiation is useful in killing certain disease organisms.X-rays and gamma rays have so much energy that they travel right through solid objects.They can be used to detect and treat cancer.X-rays are used in industry to find hidden cracks in metal,and in medicine to reveal broken bones.

  4. Usually we use electricity to generate electromagnetic energy.The source of most of our energy is the sun.Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate.When the water falls to the earth as rain,some of it is trapped behind dams and then used to operate electric generators.Other generators are powered by coal,but the energy stored in coal came from the sun.too.

  5. Until recently,the source of the tremendous amount of energy given off by the sun was a puzzle.If the sun depended on chemical reactions,it would have used up all its energy long ago.Experiments with electromagnetic radiation led to the theory that mass can be converted into energy.About forty years after the theory was proposed,nuclear energy was harnessed(利用)by man.Chemical energy comes from electron(电子) rearrangement. Nuclear energy comes from a change in the nucleus of an atom.Compared with chemical reactions.nuclear reactions release millions of times more energy per pound of mel.We now believe that the sun's energy comes from the nuclear reactions in which hydrogen is changed into helium (氦).

  6. Nuclear energy is beginning to compete with coal as an economical source of power to generate electricity.It is also being used to operate engines in large ships.Scientists continue to seek new and better methods of obtaining and using energy.

  23 Paragraph 3

  24 Paragraph 4

  25 Paragraph 5

  26 Paragraph 6

  A Nuclear Reactions as the Lasting Source of the Sun's Energy

  B The Most lmportant Source of Energy

  C Types of Electromagnetic Energy

  D The Machines Used for Energy Generation

  E Seeking New Sources of Energy

  F The Use of Ultraviolet Radiation in Medicine

  27 One can get a sunburn even .

  28 Infrared radiation can produce heat .

  29 X-rays and gamma rays can be used to detect and

  treat cancer .

  30 Chemical energy is generated .

  A when it is absorbed by matter

  B when it is cloudy

  C because they can pass through solid objects

  D when the sunrays are fierce

  E when a change in the nucleus of an atom takes place

  F when electron rearrangement takes place

  第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  第一篇 A Thirsty World

  The world is not only hungry,it is also thirsty for water.This may seem strange to you,since nearly 75%of the earth's surface is covered with water.But about 97%of this huge amount is sea-water.or saIt water.Man can only drink and use the other 3%-the fresh water that comes from rivers,lakes,underground,and other sources.And we cannot even use all of that, beeause some of it is in the fonn of icebergs(冰山)and glaciers (冰川).Even worse,some of it has been po1luted.

  At the moment,this small amount of flesh water is still enough for us.Howeve,our need for water is increasing rapidly.Only if we take steps to deal with this problem now can we_avoid

  a severe worldwide water shortage later on.A limited water supply would have a bad eriect on alriculture and industry.

  In addition to stopping wasting our precious water,one useful step we shouId take is to develop ways of reusing it . Experiments have alre.ady been done in this field,but only on a small scale.

  Today,in most large cities,water is used only once and it eventually retums to the sea or runs into underground storage tanks.But it is possible to pipe water that has been used to a

  purifying(净化)plant.There it can be filtered(过滤)and treated with chemicals so that it can be used again just as if it were flesh from a spring.

  But even if every large city purified and reused its water,we still would not have enougn.Where could we tum next?To the oceans!All we'd have to do to make use of the vast amount of sea-water is-remove the salt.This salt-removing process is already in use in many Parts of the world.

  So if we take a11 these steps,we'11 be in no danger of drying up !

  31 The phrase''the world"in the first line of the passage refers to

  A "man".

  B "you".

  C "woman".

  D "they".

  32 What percentage of the earth's water can man actually use at present?

  A Nearly 75 per cent.

  B About 97 per cent.

  C Exactly 3 per cent.

  D Lessthan 3 per cent.

  33 According to the passage,we can avoid a worldwide water shortage in the future by

  A increasing rainfall.

  B reusing water and utilizing sea-water.

  C cutting down our consumption of water.

  D reducing the number of factories producing steel.

  34 Which of the following statements,according to the passage,is NOT true?

  A A limited water supply will affect industrial production.

  B Every large city purifies and reuses its water.

  C Purified water is not exactly as flesh as spring water.

  D Oceans are the largest water source.

  35 According to the passage,sea-water can be turned into flesh water by

  A heating it up.

  B treating it with chemicals.

  C taking salt out of it.

  D drying it up.

  第二篇 Nonverbal Thinking in Engineering

  Many objects in daily use have clearly been influenced by science.However,their form and tunctlon,their dimensions and appearance,were determined by technologists.designers.

  inventors,and engineers using nonscientific modes of thought.Many features and qualities of the objects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to clear verbal descriptions;they are dealt with in the mind by a visual,nonverbal process.Pyramids,cathedrals,and rockets exist not

  because of geometry or thermo-dynamics(热动力学),but because they were first the picture in the minds of those who built them.

  The creative shaping process of a technologist's mind can be seen in nearly every artifact (人工制品) that exists.For example,in designing a diesel engine ,a technologist might express individual(个人的)ways of nonoerbal,thinking on the machine by continually using an intuitive (直觉的)sense of rightness and fitness.What would be the shape of the combustion chamber (燃烧室)?Where should the valves(阀)be placed?Such questions have a range of answers that are supplied by experience,by physical requirement,by limitations of available space.and not in the least by a sense of form.Some decisions,such as wall thickness and pin diameter,may depend on scientific calculations,but the nonscientific component design remains primary.

  Design courses,then,should be an essential element of engineering curricula.Nonverbal thinking,a central mechanism in engineering design,involves perceptions,which is the special

  techmque of the artist,not the scientist.Because perceptive processes are not assumed to need"hard thinking",nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a primitive stage in the development of cognitive processes and inferior to verbal mathematical thought.

  If courses in design,which in a strongly analytical(分析的)engineering curriculum provide the background required for practical problem-solving,are not provided,we can expect to

  encounter silly but costly errors occurring in advanced engineering systems.For example.early modes of high-speed railroad cars loaded with high-tech controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because the fan sucked snow into the electrical system.Random failures that bring automatic control systems into trouble are a reflection of the chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics.

  36 The passage is mainly concemed with

  A the modes of thinking that are used by technologists.

  B the importance of nonverbal thinking in engineering design.

  C the new role for nonscientific thinking in engineering.

  D the difference between the goals of engineers and those of technologists.

  37 Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example involving nonverbal thinking in paragraphs 1 and 2?

  A Building cathedrals.

  B Creating rockets.

  C Designing diesel engines.

  D Making boats.

  38 The example of the diesel engine is used in the passage to illustrate that

  A errors in engineering design are unavoidable.

  B the nonscientific component design is primary.

  C mathematics is a necessary part of the study of design.

  D design courses form a part of engineering curricula.

  39 It can be inferred that the writer thinks that engineering curricula are

  A strengthened when they include courses in design.

  B weakened by the courses designed to develop mathematical skills.

  C weak because they include some nonscientific components.

  D strong despite the absence of nonscientific modes of thinking?

  40 What contributes to random failures in automatic control systems?

  A Using too many inexperienced engineers in the field.

  B Attaching too much importance to nonverbal thinking in engineering.

  C Relying too heavily on the role of mathematics in design.

  D Depending very little on verbal mathematical thought.

  第三篇 Black Hoies

  What is a black hole?Well,it's difficult to answer this question,since the terms we normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here.Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space(not a thing)into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape-not even light.So we can't see a black hole.A black hole exerts(施加)a strong gravitational(重力的)pull and yet it has no matter.It is only space-or so we think. How can this happen?

  The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point;they"collapse"and sometimes a supernova(超新星)occurs.The collapse of a star may produce a

  "White Dwarf (白矮星)"of a"neutron star"一a star whose matter is so dense that lt continually shrinks by the force of its own gravity.But if the star is very large this process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results.Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble,but still having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull,and you have some idea of the force of a black hole.Any matter near the black hole is sucked in.It is impossible to say what happens inside a black hole.

  Our space and time laws don't seem to apply to objects in the area of a black hole.Einstein's relativity theory is the only one that can explain such phenomena.Einstein claimed that matter

  and energy are interchangeable.so that there is no"absolute"time and space. There are no constants at all, and measurements of time and space depend on the position of the observer-they are relative.Einstein's theory provided a basis for the idea of black holes before astronomers started to find some evidence for their existence.It is only recently that astronomers have begun

  specific research into black holes.

  The most convincing evidence of black holes comes from research into binary(由两部分组成的) star systems.In some binary star systems,astronomers have shown that there is an

  invisible companion star,a"partner"to the one which we can see in the sky.There is one star,called by its catalogue number HDE 226868.which must have a partner.This partner star,it seems.has a mass ten or twenty times greater than the sun-yet we can't see it.Matter from HDE 226868 is being dragged towards this companion star.Could this invisible star,which exerts such a great force,be a black hole?Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too,which might have black holes as companions.

  4l Which of the following does NOT fit the definition of the black hole?

  A The black hole is a region of space.

  B The black hole sucks in any object that passes by it.

  C The black hole is visible through an infrared telescope.

  D The black hole has no matter.

  42 Why does the author put"neutron star"in quotation marks?

  A It is a special term of astronomy.

  B It is an inventedterm.

  C He is quoting an authority.

  D He is using the term ironically.

  43 What leads to the formation of a black hole?

  A The structure of a star.

  B A collision between two stars.

  C The attraction of two large stars.

  D The shrinking of a large star by its own gravitational force.

  44 According to Einstein's theory,objects in the area of a black hole

  A are gathered in its center.

  B strike against one another frequently.

  C do not have absolute space.

  D are relatively brighter.

  45 We learn from this passage that

  A the sun is the heaviest star in the universe.

  B a star in the sky might have an invisible partner.

  C two black holes are dragged towards each other.

  D the mass of a star is equal to that of its companion.

  第5部分:补全短文 (第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)-

  阅读下面的短文,文章中有5处空白,文章后面有6组文字,请根据文章的内容选择5组文字,将其分别放回文章原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  How to Do Well in Exams

  Do not underestimate(低估)the power of revision in the days and hours before an examination.The closer you are to the exam,the more chance you have of storing and retaining crucial information.But do not overdo it. (46)An effective daily routine can help you through an exam period,so in the days leading up to your first exam,get into the habit of being up and ready to work by game.It can be a shock to the system after months of working to your own timetable to be mentally alert at that time if you have not prepared for it.

  On the day of the exam,have a good breakfast,pack two of everything you need (pens,pencils,erasers,etc.),then make your way to the examination hall in good time. (47)

  Once in your seat.simply pause for a few seconds and collect your thoughts.Close your eyes and take in a few slow,deep breaths to help you relax.When you turn over the test paper,

  spend a short period reading through all the instructions and questxons,paying particular attention to key verbs such as"discuss","compare"and"evaluate". (48)It is always wise to allow 10 minutes at the end of the exam to give yourself time to go back over your answers. Once you have selected the questions you wish to tackle,begin by attempting the one you think is your strongest.It will give you more confidence when you see a well-answered question down on paper Also remember to write clearly,and do not be afraid to express the unexpected:alter all,examiners call get very bored marking stereotypical(千篇一律的)answers.

  (49)If you do need something else to focus on to help you collect your thoughts,choose a fixture(固定设施)in the room,Such as the ceiling-or anything else that will not allow you to be distracted.

  Finally,once you have finished,never hang around outside afterwards to attend the discussion by other students. (50)

  A Do not arrive too early,though,as other people's anxiety can be contagious(传染性的),and you may suffer from undue panic.

  B Try not to be tempted to look at those around you,or at the clock.

  C When you get home.read the examination paper through and look up all the words you didn't understand.

  D Sleep,exercise and relaxation are all just as important.

  E Map out a quick plan of points you wish to make and how much time you should spend on each question.

  F Go and have。a well.earned rest-then prepare for your next exam.

  第6部分:完形填空 (第51~65题,每题1分,共15分)

  阅读下面的短文,文中有15处空白,每处空白给出4个选项,请根据短文的内容从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案,涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

  Stinking(发臭的)Buses

  Stinking buses jam(挤满)the crowded street.Drivers (51)at one another and honk(鸣喇叭)their horns.Smog(烟雾)hurts the eyes and chokes(窒息)the senses.The (52)is Athens at rush houn The city is in a sorry state of affairs,built (53)a plan,lacking even adequate sewerage facilities(排水设施),its 135 square miles packed with 3.7 million people.

  So great has been the population flow toward the city that neighboring villages smnd (54)or nearly so.About 120,000 people from distant provinces move to Athens every year. The migrants come for the few available (55)which are usually no better than the ones they ran away from.At the current (56) of migration,Athens by the year 2000 will have a population of 6.5 million,more than half the nation.

  Aside from overcrowding and poor public transport,the biggest (57)facing Athenians are noise and pollution.A government study (58)that Athens was the noisiest city in the world.Smog is almost at killing levels:up to four times the level that the world Health organization.considers safe.Nearly half the pollution comes from cars. (59)high prices for vehicles and fuel,nearly 100,000 automobiles are sold in

  Greece each year:3,000 drivers'licenses are After decades of neglect,Athens is at (60)in Athens monthly . (61)getting some attention.In March a government meeting was held to discuss a plan to make the city (62)and clean up its environment.A save-Athens ministry will propose heavy taxes to (63) immigration and a minimum of$5 billion in public spending for Athens alone.A master plan that will move many govemment offices to the city's Meanwhile,more Greeks (64)is already in the works (65)moving into Athens.With few parks and few oxygen-producing plants,the city and its citizens are literally suffocating(窒息).

  51 A shout B cry C curse D attack

  52 A camera B scene C scenenr D site

  53 A with B without C for D on

  54 A vacant B crowded C lonely D alone

  55 A works B qualifications C titles D jobs

  56 A way B method C rate D space

  57 A matter B aim C problem D objoct

  58 A concluded B reached C received D conducted

  59 A Despite B Considering C Thanks for D Prevented by

  60 A Published B spread C cancelled D issued

  61 A last B least C end D final D final

  62 A livable B alive C alike D living

  63 A discourage B encourage C remove D decline

  64 A countryside B district C center D suburbs

  65 A hold B fix C keep D retain

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