The Placebo Effect
When scientists want to test a new drug, they usually divide a large number of people ＿＿＿＿＿（1） two groups. One group takes the medicine and the other takes a substance ＿＿＿＿＿（2） as a placebo （安慰剂）. It may contain nothing more than sugar. The people do not know which pill they are taking, the active one or the inactive one. In this kind of experiment, the medicine must perform ＿＿＿＿＿（3） than the placebo to prove it is effective.
Yet, people who take a placebo sometimes experience improvements in their health. This is known as "the placebo effect" - the effect of something ＿＿＿＿＿（4） is not supposed to have any effect.
Some doctors even use the placebo effect in their treatments. They might tell patients that a new drug will stop their pain. The patient does not know that the pills are ＿＿＿＿＿（5）, The patient ＿＿＿＿＿（6） the pills and later tells the doctor that the pain is gone.
Now research in Sweden suggests that placebo treatments can also ＿＿＿＿＿（7） the emotional effects of unpleasant experiences. The effects in the brain were similar to those seen when placebos have been used to ease pain. The researchers say that in both cases expectations of improvement are a major ＿＿＿＿＿（8） on the effectiveness of placebos, The new study involved a group of people who looked at unpleasant pictures, ＿＿＿＿＿（9） images of dead bodies, Predrag Petrovic of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm led the study. The findings appeared in the publication Neuron （神经元）.
An influential study on placebos appeared in 1955. It said treatment with a placebo ＿＿＿＿＿（10） patients feel better 35% of the time. But in 2001, Danish researchers reported that they had examined more than 100 studies. They found ＿＿＿＿＿（11） evidence of healing as a result of placebos.
Some researchers think a good relationship between a doctor and patient can increase the effectiveness of real medicines. In any case, some medical researchers are against the use of ＿＿＿＿＿（12）. They think it is ＿＿＿＿＿（13） to give some people inactive substances when testing new medicines. They say it would be better to ＿＿＿＿＿（14） new drugs with existing drugs. That way, a study would show ＿＿＿＿＿（15） the new drug is more effective.
1 A in B to C into D for
2 A named B called C referred D known
3 A better B worse C more weakly D more slowly
4 A which B that C what D whatever
5 A active B inactive C effective D helpful
6 A makes B sells C takes D brings
7 A reduce B increase C raise D enhance
8 A information B inspiration C incident D influence
9 A so as B such as C as if D as for
10 A got B made C caused D rendered
11 A few B much C many D little
12 A drugs B cures C placebos D medicines
13 A wrong B right C sensible D reasonable
14 A take B produce C combine D compare
15 A if B how C when D where
1. C 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. B
6. C 7. A 8. D 9. B 10. B
11. D 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. A