Sony's Vision For The Future
As the television， communications and telecommunications industries emerge， compatibility （兼容性） becomes a big issue for consumers. I think we should maintain open and compatible standards and create features particular to Sony， in other words， the system should be open but the services could be distinctive —— like restaurants. The menus may be alike but the services are different.
Being president of Sony Corporation， I am often asked by this question： With digital cameras and digital camcorders （摄像机）， what will be the future of digital imaging？
In 1997， optimists see non-traditi0nal cameras ~ digital cameras achieving sales of one million units in Japan. We are selling a new digital camera. Even though the price is quite high， it is selling well. And laser and ink-jet printers have improved greatly for printing colour pictures. But traditional pictures are still more popular than those from today's electronic cameras. Because of that， traditional cameras and digital cameras will co-exist for a long time.
If you want me to sum up Sony's vision for the next few years， all I can say is that there will be a big change. We can run our business at Sony based on today's technologies ~ which means the digitalisation of audio and video. But beyond 2000， there will be a big change and we should be prepared. This will be the network environment. So we are preparing for a big change in technologies and for a change in the way of thinking as well.
We celebrate our 50~ anniversary this year （1997）， and this coincides （与……一致） with what I call the transistor cycle， which has also lasted fifty years. Since we started using transistors in radios， the electronic industry has undergone a big evolution. But a new technology wave started with the invention of the microprocessor， about 14 or 15 years ago. My theory is that each business cycle lasts 50 years， with one cycle overlapping （重叠） another. The information age started 15 years ago with microprocessors and for another 10 years it will be in the takeoff stage. Like an airport， a 747 approaching the end of the runway is still gathering speed. So for information technology， for another five to seven years there will not be so much change， only increasing speed. But after that you fly. What that will mean， I cannot foresee. I'm just preparing for the takeoff stage while I'm president. The job of the next generation will be more important. I'm just in-between.
31 Why does the president of Sony Corporation mention restaurants in the first paragraph？
A To praise Japanese restaurants for offering good services.
B To explain that Japanese restaurants are distinctive.
C To explain what has just been said.
D To emphasize that restaurants are all alike.
32 What is the president's view on digital cameras and traditional ones？
A Digital cameras will be cheaper than traditional ones in the near future.
B Digital cameras and traditional cameras will co-exist for ever.
C The prices of digital cameras will go down very soon.
D Digital cameras will not take the place of traditional ones in the next few years.
33 What will take place in the next few years， according to the president？
A A big change in technologies and in the way of thinking.
B A change in digitalisation.
C A change in the way of manufacturing.
D A change in the business cycle.
34 How long does each business cycle last， according to the president？
A 10 years.
B 14 or15 years.
C 25 years.
D 50 years.
35 What does the president say he is doing？
A He is designing jobs for the next generation.
B He is preparing for the 'fly' stage.
C He is doing something for the takeoff stage.
D He is flying an aircraft.
There is an old saying in English： "Laughter is the best medicine". Until recently， few people took the saying very seriously. Now， however， doctors have begun to investigate laughter and the effects it has on the human body. They have found evidence that laughter really can improve people's health.
Tests were carried out to study the effects of laughter on the body. People watched funny films， while doctors checked their heart rate， blood pressure， breathing and muscles. It was found that laughter has similar effects to physical exercise. It increases blood pressure， the heart rate and the rate of breathing； it also works several groups of muscles in the face， the stomach， and even the feet. If laughter exercises the body， it must be beneficial.
Other tests have shown that laughter appears to be capable of reducing the effect of pain on the body. In one experiment doctors produced pain in groups of students who listened to different radio programs. The group which tolerated the pain for the longest time was the group which listened to a funny program. The reason why laughter can reduce pain seems to be that it helps to produce endorphins （内啡肽） in the brain. These are natural chemicals which diminish both stress and pain.
There is also some evidence to suggest that laughter helps the body's immune system， that is， the system which fights infection. In an experiment， one group of students watched a funny video while another group served as the control group - in other words， a group with which to compare the first group. Doctors checked the blood of the students in both groups and found that the people in the group that watched the video had an increase in the activity of their white blood cells， that is， the cells which fight infection.
As a result of these discoveries， some doctors and psychiatrists （精神病学） in the United States now hold laughter clinics， in which they try to improve their patients' condition by encouraging them to laugh. They have found that even if their patients do not really feel like laughing， making them smile is enough to produce beneficial effects similar to those caused by laughter.
36 We learn from the first paragraph that laughter
A is good for one's health.
B is related to some illness.
C has been investigated long since.
D has no effect on the body.
37 Doctors have found that laughter
A keeps down blood pressure.
B has similar effects to physical exercise.
C decreases the heart rate.
D increases stress.
38 Which of the following statements is NOT true of laughter， according to the passage？
A It reduces pain，
B It exercises the body.
C it improves the body's immune system.
D It can cure cancer.
39 In a laughter clinic， doctors
A laugh at their patients.
B encourage their patients to laugh.
C smile when they don't feel like laughing.
D never stop laughing.
40 The writer's attitude towards laughter is
A greenhouse is a building made of glass which is used for keeping plants warm when the outside temperature is low. In a similar way， there are several gases in the atmosphere which trap the heat generated by the sun and prevent it from escaping. These gases are known as "greenhouse gases"， and the way in which they trap heat in the atmosphere is called the "greenhouse effect". This is not simply air pollution like photochemical smog （光化学烟雾）， for example. Most of the main greenhouse gases occur naturally in small amounts in our atmosphere， and without them the earth would be thirty degrees colder and human life would not exist. In other words， the greenhouse effect is a natural process which is to some extent beneficial to us.
The problem is that in the last century and a half， we have been putting excessive amounts of these gases into the earth's atmosphere by burning large quantities of coal and oil and by cutting down forests. In 1850， there were 280 parts per million of carbon dioxide （二氧化碳） in the atmosphere. Now there are 360， and this figure is expected to rise to 460 by the year 2030. We now put 24 billion metric （公制的） tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year. We have also created a group of artificial greenhouse gases that are 20，000 times more effective than carbon dioxide in trapping heat in the atmosphere. These are the chlorofluorocarbon （氟氯碳） gases， which are used in refrigerators and air conditioning systems.
The rapid increase in greenhouse gases is making the world warmer. The world's temperature has already gone up by half a degree this century， and the sea level has risen by ten centimeters. If the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere doubles， there will probably be a rise in the earth's temperature of between 1~ and 4~. This may seem a small increase， but it would be enough to cause major changes in geography and agriculture. Large areas of the world would be flooded， and some regions would become dry and unable to produce crops. It is important， too， to consider that there maybe a delay of about thirty years in the greenhouse effect. This means that we are probably experiencing only now the effect of the gases put into the atmosphere up to the 1960s. Since then， our use of these gases has greatly increased.
41 According to the passage， a greenhouse is built to
A keep the plants warm.
B prevent air pollution.
C stop the greenhouse effect.
D produce useful gases.
42 Without the greenhouse gases， the earth would
A become warmer.
B be much colder.
C move more slowly.
D move quickly.
43 A major cause of the increase in the greenhouse gases is
A the burning of trees and crops.
B the building of many greenhouses.
C the burning of large quantities Of coal and oil.
D the flooding of large areas of the world.
44 According to the passage， chlorofluorocarbon gases differ from carbon dioxide in that
A they are more useful.
B they are much heavier.
C they are more efficient in making the' world colder.
D they are more effective in catching the heat from the sun.
45 A small increase in the earth's temperature may bring about
A a decline in agriculture.
B a drop of the sea level.
C the death of all animals.
D a delay in the greenhouse effect.
31. C 32. D 33. A 34. D 35. C
36. A 37. B 38. D 39. B 40. C
41. A 42. B 43. C 44. D 45. A