The National Park Service
America's national parks are like old friends. You may not see them for years at a time, but just knowing they're out there makes you feel better. Hearing the names of these famous old friends - Yosemite, Yellowstone, Grand Canyon - revives memories of visits past and promotes dreams of those still to come.
From Acadia to Zion, 369 national parks are part of a continually evolving system. Ancient fossil （化石的） beds, Revolutionary War battlefields, magnificent mountain ranges, and monuments to heroic men and women who molded this country are all a part of our National Park System （NPS）. The care and preservation for future generations of these special places is entrusted （托管） to the National Park Service. Uniformed Rangers, the most visible representatives of the Service, not only offer park visitors a friendly wave, a helpful answer, or a thought-provoking history lesson, but also are skilled rescuers, firefighters, and dedicated resource protection professionals （专业人员）. The National Park Service ranks also include architects, historians, archaeologists, biologists, and a host of other experts who preserve and protect everything from George Washington's teeth to Thomas Edison's wax recordings.
Modern society has brought the National Park Service both massive challenges and enormous opportunities. Satellite and computer technologies are expanding the educational possibilities of a national park beyond its physical boundaries. Cities struggling to revive their urban cores are turning to the Park Service for expert assistance to preserve their cultural heritage, create pocket parks and green spaces, and re-energize local economies. Growing communities thirsty for recreational outlets are also working with the NPS to turn abandoned railroad tracks into bike and hiking trails, as well as giving unused federal property new life as recreation centers.
To help meet these challenges and take advantage of these opportunities, the National Park Service has formed partnerships - some dating back 100 years, some only months old - with other agencies, state and local governments, corporations, American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives, Park Friends groups, cooperating associations, private organizations and community groups.
1 Why are America's national parks like old friends?
A Because knowing they are there makes you happier.
B Because they are very old.
C Because they are tourist attractions.
D Because they are very famous.
2 Which of the following statements about uniformed rangers is true?
A They take tourists to parks.
B They are professors of history.
C They set up new national parks.
D They protect the National Park System.
3 The National Park Service does all of the following EXCEPT
A offer help to visitors.
B mold the country.
C keep people better informed of the National Park System.
D help preserve the cultural heritage.
4 What is this passage about?
A The protection of parks.
B The National Park Service.
C Challenges and opportunities.
D Recreational activities.
5 What will the paragraph following this passage most probably discuss?
A The pocket parks in America.
B The training of rangers.
C The work that has been done by the partners.
D The preservation of natural resources in America
Sleep Necessary for Memories
Burning the midnight oil before an exam or interview does harm to the performance according to a recent research which found that sleep is necessary for memories to be taken back into the brain. A good night's sleep within 30 hours of trying to remember a new task is a required condition of having good recall in the weeks ahead, scientists have found.
The research, published in the December issue of Nature Neuroscience, showed that it was the act of sleep, rather than the simple passage of time, that was critical for long-term memory formation.
"We think that getting that first night's sleep starts the process of memory consolidation （巩固）," said Robert Stickgold, a sleep researcher at Harvard Medical School who conducted the latest study.
"It seems that memories normally wash out of the brain unless some process nails them down. My suspicion is that sleep is one of those things that does the flailing down," Professor Stickgold said.
With about one in five people claiming that they are so chronically short of sleep that it affects their daily activities, the latest work emphasizes the less well-understood side effect- serious memory impairment （损害）.
Volunteers in an experiment found it easier to remember a memory task if they were allowed to sleep that night. But for those kept awake, no amount of subsequent sleep made up for the initial loss.
Professor Stickgold's team trained 24 people to identify the direction of three diagonal （斜线形的） bars flashed for a sixtieth of a second on a computer screen full of horizontal （水平的） stripes.
Half of the subjects were kept awake that night, while the others slept. Both groups were allowed to sleep for the second and third nights to make up for any differences in tiredness between the volunteers.
Those who slept the first night were significantly and consistently better at remembering the task while the second group showed no improvement despite enjoying two nights of catch-up sleep.
6 The research published in Nature Neuroscience showed that what was essential to the formation of long-term memory was
7 Which of the following statements about the research is NOT true?
A It was done within 30 hours.
B It was headed by Professor Stickgold.
C It focused on long-term memory formation.
D There were altogether 24 subjects in the experiment.
8 Stickgold's research focused on the side effect produced by
A memory impairment.
B lack of sleep.
C low work efficiency.
D memory recall.
9 In Stickgold's experiment, those who were kept awake on the first night
A could very well remember the direction of the diagonal bars.
B didn't do any better after two nights' sleep.
C were as tired as those who were not.
D could recall the direction of more bars than those who were not.
10 Those who slept the first night
A couldn't remember the task.
B could not sleep the second and third nights.
C performed slightly better than those who did not
D did much better than those who did not.
The Barbie Dolls
In the mid 1940's, the young ambitious duo （一对艺人） Ruth and Elliot Handler, owned a company that made wooden picture frames. It was in 1945 that Ruth and Elliot Handler joined with their close friend Harold Mattson to form a company that would be known for the most famous and successful doll ever created. This company would be named Martel, MATT for Mattson, and EL for Elliot.
In the mid 1950's, while visiting Switzerland, Ruth Handler purchased a German Lilli doll. Lilli was a shapely, pretty fashion doll first made in 1955. She was originally fashioned after a famous cartoon character in The West German Newsletter, Build.
Lilli is the doll that would inspire Ruth Handler to design the Barbie doll. With the help of her technicians and engineers at Mattel, Barbie was born. Ruth then hired Charlotte Johnson, a fashion designer, to create Barbie's wardrobe. It was in 1958 that the patent for Barbie was obtained. This would be a fashion doll unlike any of her time. She would be long limbed, shapely, beautiful, and only 11.5 inches tall. Ruth and Elliot would name their new fashion doll after their own daughter, Barbie.
In 1959, the Barbie doll would make her way to the New York Toy Show and receive a cool reception from the toy buyers.
Barbie has undergone a lot of changes over the years and has managed to keep up with current trends in hairstyles, makeup and clothing. She is a reflection of the history of fashion since her introduction to the toy market.
Barbie has a universal appeal and collectors both young and old enjoy time spent and memories made with their dolls.
11 When Ruth and Elliot Handler were young, they had a strong desire
A to go to school.
B to take photos.
C to make wooden frames.
D to be highly successful.
12 Who owned Mattel?
C Ruth and Elliot Handler.
D Harold Mattson, Ruth and Elliot Handler
13 Lilli was originally fashioned after
B a German worker.
C a pretty girl.
D a shapely woman.
14 Where did Ruth's inspiration for the design of the Barbie doll come from?
C Charlotte Johnson.
D A fashion designer.
15 Which of the following statements about the Barbie doll is NOT true?
A She does not attract young men.
B She has undergone many changes over the years.
C She is 11.5 inches tall.
D She has managed to keep up with fashion.
1. A 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. C
6. D 7. A 8. B 9. B 10. D
11. D 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. A