U.S. Blacks Hard-hit by Cancer
Death rates for cancer are falling for all Americans, but black Americans are still more likely to die of cancer than whites, the American Cancer Society said Monday.
In a special report on cancer and blacks, the organization said blacks are usually diagnosed with cancer later than whites, and they are more likely to die of the disease.
This could be because of unequal （不平等的） access to medical care, because blacks are more likely to have other diseases as well, and perhaps because of differences in the biology （生物学） of the cancer itself, the report added.
"In general, black Americans have less hope of surviving five years after diagnosis than whites for all cancer sites and all stages of diagnosis," the report said.
"In describing cancer statistics for black Americans, this report recognizes that many of the differences associated with race may be caused by unfair social and economic differences and unequal access to medical care."
The cancer society said blacks should be encouraged to get check-ups （体格检查） earlier, when cancer is more treatable, and it said more research is needed to see if biological differences play a role.
"The new statistics emphasize the continuing importance of wiping out these unfair social differences through public policy and education efforts," the organization said in a statement.
But it also noted a drop in cancer death rates.
"Cancer death rates in both sexes for all sites combined have dropped greatly among black Americans since 1992, as have incidence rates （发生率）," said the report.
31 Black Americans are more likely to die of cancer than
A people in other countries.
B white Americans.
C all other Americans.
D their ancestors.
32 Which may NOT be a reason for higher cancer death rates among US blacks?
A Unequal access to medical care.
B Greater probability of having other diseases,
C Differences in the biology of the cancer.
D Early diagnosis.
33 Cancer is more treatable if it is detected
A in an early stage.
B in a late stage.
C all of a sudden.
D together with other diseases.
34 Public policy and education efforts may help to do away with
A death rates.
B various cancers.
C unfair social differences.
D biological differences.
35 Since 1992, cancer death rates among black Americans
A have been going up and down.
B have remained stable.
C have increased.
D have fallen.
One day a friend asked my wife Jill if I wanted a hearing aid. "He certainly does," replied Jill. After hearing about a remarkable new product, Jill finally got up the nerve to ask me if rd ever thought about getting a hearing aid. "No way," I said. "It would make me look 20 years older. No, no," she replied. "This is entirely different. It's Crystal Ear!"
Jill was right. Crystal Ear is different-not the old-styled body worn or over-the-ear aid, but an advanced personal sound system so small that it's like contacts （隐形眼镜） for your ears. And Crystal Ear is super-sensitive and powerful, too. You will hear sounds your ears have been missing for years. Crystal Ear will make speech louder, and the sound is pure and natural.
I couldn't believe how tiny it is. It is smaller than the tip of my little finger and it's almost invisible when worn. There are no wires, no behind-the-ear device. Put it in your ear and its ready-to-wear mold （形状） fits comfortably. Since it's not too loud or too tight, you may even forget that you're wearing it! Use it at work or at play. And if your hearing problem is worse in certain situations, use Crystal Ear only when you need it.
Hearing loss, which occurs typically prior to teenage years, progresses throughout one's lifetime. Although hearing loss is now the world's number one health problem, nearly 90 percent of people suffering hearing loss choose to leave the problem untreated. For many millions, treating hearing loss in a conventional way can involve numerous office visits, expensive testing and adjustments to fit your ear. Thanks to Crystal Ear, the "sound solution" is now convenient. Almost 90 percent of people with mild hearing loss, and millions more with just a little hearing drop-off （下降）, can be dramatically helped with Crystal Ear. Moreover, its superior design is energy-efficient, so batteries can last months. Crystal Ear is now available to help these people treat their hearing loss with a small hearing amplifier （放大器）.
36 Initially the writer did not want to buy a hearing aid because
A it would make him look old.
B it would make him nervous.
C it was too expensive.
D it was old-styled.
37 Which of the following is NOT true of Crystal Ear?
A It is highly sensitive.
B It is powerful.
C It is invisible.
D It is wireless.
38 One special feature of Crystal Ear is that
A you can control its volume.
B you needn't take it off every day.
C it is solar-powered.
D it saves power.
39 According to the passage, hearing loss is
A only a minor health problem.
B the world's most common health problem
C merely a teenage disease.
D an incurable disease.
40 Many people leave their hearing problem untreated because
A it is not serious.
B Crystal Ear is not yet available.
C it is not easy to have it treated.
D they don't want to look old.
Technology Transfer In Germany
When it comes to translating basic research into industrial success, few nations can match Germany. Since the 1940s, the nation's vast industrial base has been fed with a constant stream of new ideas and expertise from science. And though German prosperity （繁荣） has faltered （衰退） over the past decade because of the huge cost of unifying east and west as well as the global economic decline, it still has an enviable （令人羡慕的） record for turning ideas into profit.
Much of the reason for that success is the Fraunhofer Society, a network of research institutes that exists solely to solve industrial problems and create- sought-after technologies. But today the Fraunhofer institutes have competition. Universities are taking an ever larger role in technology transfer, and technology parks are springing up all over. These efforts are being complemented by the federal programmes for pumping money into start-up companies.
Such a strategy may sound like a recipe for economic success, but it is not without its critics. These people worry that favouring applied research will mean neglecting basic science, eventually starving industry of fresh ideas. If every scientist starts thinking like an entrepreneur （企业家）, the argument goes, then the traditional principles of university research being curiosity-driven, free and widely available will suffer. Others claim that many of the programmes to promote technology transfer are a waste of money because half the small businesses that are promoted are bound to go bankrupt within a few years.
While this-debate continues, new ideas flow at a steady rate from Germany's research networks, which bear famous names such as Helmholtz, Max Planck and Leibniz. Yet it is the fourth network, the Fraunhofer Society, that plays the greatest role in technology transfer.
Founded in 1949,. the Fraunhofer Society is now Europe's largest organisation for applied technology, and has 59 institutes employing 12, 000 people. It continues to grow. Last year, it swallowed up the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Communication Technology in Berlin. Today, there are even Fraunhofers in the US and Asia.
41 What factor can be attributed to German prosperity?
A Technology transfer.
B Good management.
C Hard work.
D Fierce competition.
42 Which of the following is NOT true of traditional university research?
A It is free.
B It is profit-driven.
C It is widely available.
D It is curiosity-driven.
43 The Fraunhofer Society is the largest organisation for applied technology in
44 When was the Fraunhofer Society founded?
A In 1940.
B Last year.
C After the unification.
D In 1949.
45 The word "expertise" in line 3 could be best replaced by
D "special knowledge".
31. B 32. D 33. A 34. C 35. D
36. A 37. C 38. D 39. B 40. C
41. A 42. B 43. C 44. D 45. D