1 The new products are beyond of debate; they have been tested on many markets all over the world.
A conflict B dispute
C bargain D negotiation
2 The majority of people around here are decent people.
A honest B rich
C good-looking D high-ranking
3 With immense relief I stopped running..
A no B little
C scarce D enormous
4 I catch cold now and then.
A always B occasionally
C constantly D regularly
5 Due to violent competition among the airlines, travel expenses have been reduced considerably.
A fierce B strained
C eager D critical
6 She cancelled her trip to Paris because she was ill.
A called off B closed down
C put up D went off
7 Mr. Liu suffered from mental tiredness because of stress from his current job.
A damage B release
C relief D fatigue
8 The first time I went to the school a few years ago, I was terribly frightened of it, but I soon recover from it.
A get off B got across
C got away D got over
9 My boss asked me to help him in carrying through the plan.
A provide B arouse
C assist D persist
10 The army should have operated in conjunction with the fleet to raid the enemy’s coast.
A together B in succession
C in alliance D in connection
11 Their interpretation was faulty．
A wrong B ambiguous
C unclear D unbelievable
12 He is renowned for his skill.
A remembered B recommended
B praised D well-known
13 The Constitution's vague nature has given it the flexibility to be adapted when circumstances change.
A imprecise B concise
C unpolished D elementary
14 The train came to an abrupt stop, making us wonder where we were.
A slow B noisy
C sudden D jumpy
15 You must shine your shoes．
A lighten B clean
C wash D polish
Cell phone studies find no' consistent evidence' of cancer link
A review of cell phone studies commissioned by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority has found no "consistent evidence" of an increased risk of cancer from usage, the agency said. Studies have differed on whether the use of mobile phones increases the risk of cancer as the handsets have become increasingly popular and efficient.
The governmental agency asked Dr. John D. Boice Jr. and Dr. Joseph K. McLaughlin of the International Epidemiology Institute in Rockville, Md., to evaluate published epidemiological research on the subject.
The review looked at nine studies since 1996 that included factors such as type of phone, duration and frequency of use and brain tumor location.
"No consistent evidence was observed for increased risk of brain cancer （or other forms）," the scientists said in the review, released Wednesday.
The agency acknowledged public concern about the issue and said many studies were still being performed and continued follow-up was needed on any possible carcinogenic effect linked to mobile phone usage.
"You can never say that something is without risk, but at least we can say that there is no scientific evidence for a causal association between the use of cellular phones and cancer," said Lars-Erik Paulsson, a radiation expert with the agency.
The review singled out research by Swedish oncologist Lennart Hardell, which said that long-term users of old-fashioned analog cell phones were at least 30% more likely than nonusers to develop brain tumors. Newer digital phones emit less radiation than older analog models of the sort studied.
Hardell, whose study was published recently in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention, studied 1,617 patients with brain tumors and compared them with a similar-size group of people without tumors.
The review said Hardell's study and some U.S. research with similar findings were "non-informative, either because the follow-up was too short and numbers of cancers too small, or because of serious methodological limitations."
It contrasted those with three studies in the United States, and studies in Finland and Denmark, which Paulsson said used more reliable sampling methods and were based on medical reports rather than interviews with patients.
Those studies found "a consistent picture …… that appears to rule out, with a reasonable degree of certainty, a causal association between cellular telephones and cancer to date," the agency said.
16 Swedish Radiation Protection Authority looked at previous studies.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 According to the agency further studies on any possible carcinogenic effect linked to mobile phone usage were needed.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 The public believe that usage of mobile phones increases the risk of cancer.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 Newer digital phones release more radiation than older analog models of the sort studied.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 Hardell's study were based on medical reports
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 Studies in Finland and Denmark used more reliable sampling methods and were based on medical reports
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 Cancer has a relation to the use of cellular phones.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
Study Shows Faces Are Processed Like Words
1 Although they are dramatically different, words and faces are both recognized by parts, according to a study published in February in the Journal of Vision, an online, free access publication of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology （ARVO）.
2 It has been suggested that faces and words are recognized differently, that faces are identified by wholes, whereas words and other objects are identified by parts.
3 However, Marialuisa Martelli, Najib Majaj, and Denis Pelli, three neuroscientists from New York University, conducted a study that finds individuals use letters to recognize words and facial features to recognize faces.
4 To reach this finding, experiments were performed in which observers were asked to focus on a black dot, to the right of which was a letter. To the left of the dot was a three-letter word in which the letter to the right was in the middle of that word. The visual experiments also involved manipulated faces and facial features. In this case, observers would focus on a black dot. To the dot's right were lips that were fat or thin, or smiling or frowning. To the left of the dot was an entire face.
5 When the words to the left were spaced normally and the face was of normal proportions, subjects had a great deal of difficulty identifying out of their peripheral vision the letter and the characteristics of the lips. Pelli concludes that context hinders identification and crowds what is to be identified.
6 In a second experiment, the observers were presented with a context that proved to make recognition easier. Where letter identification was involved, the letters comprising the word to the left of the dot were spread out. When faces were involved, the facial features similarly were spread apart. In this experiment, subjects found naming the letter and recognizing the type of lips to the dot's right far easier. In this case, Pelli notes, to recognize a word or face, each letter or facial feature must be isolated from the rest.
7 "These measures appear to be identifying what kind of computation is performed by the brain in doing this," says Pelli. The brain, he says, is recognizing these objects by parts, not as wholes. Our visual system recognizes "bite-sized pieces" of our world, and our brain assembles them into the perceptual objects that constitute our environment.
23 Paragraph 4 ＿＿＿＿＿.
24 Paragraph 5 ＿＿＿＿＿.
25 Paragraph 6 ＿＿＿＿＿.
26 Paragraph 7 ＿＿＿＿＿.
A Brain recognizes objects by parts
B Context prevent identification and crowds being identified.
C How does the brain perform computation
D When recognize a word or face, each letter or facial feature must be isolated from the rest.
E faces and words are recognized differently
F observers were asked to focus on a black dot
27 In the past people believe ＿＿＿＿＿.
28 naming the letter and recognizing the type of lips to the dot's right become more easier because ＿＿＿＿＿.
29 our brain ＿＿＿＿＿.
30 Our visual system ＿＿＿＿＿.
A letters and the facial features spread apart
B all things are identified by wholes
C faces are identified by wholes
D recognizes our world by pieces
E recognizing objects by parts and assembles them into the perceptual objects
F context hinders identification and crowds what is to be identified.
Everyone knows how the story of Cinderella ends, but did you ever really think about how she spent her days before she met the prince? Her daily routine was not fascinating. She did everything from sweeping the floor to cooking the meals. If someone had asked Cinderella, "Are there any kinds of household work that you particularly hate?" she probably would have answered, "Why, none, of course. Housework is my duty!" In the real world, however, most people have definite dislikes for certain sorts of household work. Two of these tasks are ironing clothes and washing dishes.
Ironing clothes is most hated because it is not a task that can be completed quickly or thoughtlessly. Each piece of clothing must be handled individually, so ironing a basket of laundry can take hours! After ironing a piece of clothing with great caution, which requires smoothing out the fabric, and following the seams, you need to place it on a hanger as soon as possible. If you do not follow these directions carefully, it might become wrinkled and you have to start over. Perhaps that is why ironing is not a favorite thing to do. It calls for extreme attention to detail from beginning to end.
Another household job that many people dislike is washing dishes. Of course, some people claim that this work is no longer a problem because we have dishwashers now! However, no one would argue that dishes, silverware, and especially pots and pans washed in a dishwasher don't come out as clean as they do when washed by hand. For this reason, many of us continues to wash our dishes by hand, but we are not necessarily happy doing it. Cleaning dishes is a job that not only takes a lot of energy but also requires the patience to wash and dry them. In addition, unlike ironing clothes, washing dishes is a thing that usually must be done every day. I don't know how Cinderella felt about this particular task, but I believe that most people hate it as much as I do.
31 For Cinderella, doing household work is.
A an assignment
B a compulsion
C a joy
D an obligation
32 Most people hate to do clothes-ironing because.
A it demands less care
B it must be handled skillfully
C it involves careful planning
D it is time-consuming
33 To avoid ironing the clothes over again, one should.
A know how to iron certain clothes material
B spare no care through all the procedures
C find some proper hangers for the ironed
D pay special attention to the seams
34 Many people still prefer washing dishes by hand to machine washing because.
A hand-washed dishes are cleaner
B dishwashers are not so easily handled
C some dishes cannot be machine washed
D washing dishes by hand is cheaper
35 Ironing is different from dishwashing in that.
A it demands less care
B it requires patience
C it is not laborious
D it demands less care
U.S. Scientists Confirm Water on Mars
NASA1 scientists said that Mars was covered once by vast lakes, flowing rivers and a variety of other wet environments that had the potential to support life.
Laboratory tests aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander2 have identified water in a soil sample; the lander's robotic arm delivered the sample Wednesday to an instrument that identifies vapors produced by the heating of samples.
"We have water," said William Boynton of the University of Arizona, lead scientist for the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer3, or TEGA. "This is the first time Martian water has been touched and tasted."
The robotic arm is a critical part of the Phoenix Mars mission. It is needed to trench" into the icy layers of northern polar Mars and deliver samples to instruments that will analyze what Mars is made of, what its water is like, and whether it is or has ever been a possible habitat for life.
The soil sample came from a trench approximately 2 inches deep. When the robotic arm first reached that depth, it hit a hard layer of frozen soil. Two attempts to deliver samples of icy soil on days when fresh material was exposed were foiled when the samples became stuck inside the scoop. Most of the material in Wednesday's sample had been exposed to the air for two days, letting some of the water in the sample vaporize away and making the soil easier to handle.
"Mars is giving us some surprises," said Phoenix principal investigator Peter Smith of the University of Arizona. "We're excited because surprises are where discoveries come from. One surprise is how the soil is behaving. The ice-rich layers stick to the scoop when poised in the sun above the deck, different from what we expected, from all the Mars simulation testing we've done so far. "
Since landing on May 25, Phoenix has been studying soil with a chemistry lab, TEGA, a microscope, a conductivity probe and cameras. The science team is trying to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for biology and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present.
The mission is examining the sky as well as the ground. A Canadian instrument is using a laser beam to study dust and clouds overhead.
"It's a 30-watt light bulb giving us a laser show on Mars," said Victoria Hipkin of the Canadian Space Agency.
A full-circle, color panorama of Phoenix's surroundings also has been completed by the spacecraft.
"The details and patterns we see in the ground show an ice-dominated terrain as far as the eye can see," said Mark Lemmon of Texas A & M University, lead scientist for Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager4 camera. "They help us plan measurements we're making within reach of the robotic arm and interpret those measurements on a wider scale."
36 What was discovered by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Mars?
A Vast lakes.
B Flowing rivers.
C Water in a soil sample.
D Living things.
37 Why did the first two attempts to deliver samples fail?
A The sample vaporized away.
B Fresh material was exposed to the air.
C The samples got stuck inside the scoop.
D The robotic arm hit a hard rock.
38 Which one of the following statements is NOT meant by the writer?
A Scientists have been trying to break the ice-rich layers of soil on Mars.
B Scientists have been surprised by how the soil on Mars behaves.
C Scientists have been trying to fend out if there is life supporting material on Mars.
D Scientists have been trying to know if water ice will melt.
39 Where are the scientists involved in the research from?
A They are from America.
B They are from Canada.
C They are from both America and Canada.
D They are from neither America nor Canada.
40 Which of the following do you think is the best description of Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager Camera, according to your understanding of the passage?
A It imitates human vision and is able to capture three-dimensional images.
B It imitates human voice and is able to record slight sounds while taking photos.
C It takes clear photos that show every detail of the object.
D It is this particular type of camera that can take wide angle pictures.
'Hidden' Species May Be Surprisingly Common
Cryptic species - animals that appear identical but are genetically quite distant - may be much more widespread than previously thought. The findings could have major implications in areas ranging from biodiversity estimates and wildlife management, to our understanding of infectious diseases and evolution.
Reports of cryptic species have increased dramatically over the past two decades with the advent of relatively inexpensive DNA sequencing technology. Markus Pfenninger and Klaus Schwenk, of the Goethe-Universitat in Frankfurt1, Germany, analyzed all known data on cryptic animal species and discovered that they are found in equal proportions throughout all major branches of the animal kingdom and occur in equal numbers in all biogeographical regions.
Scientists had previously speculated that cryptic species were predominantly found in insects and reptiles, and were more likely to occur in tropical rather than temperate regions. "Species that are seemingly widespread and abundant could in reality be many different cryptic species that have low populations and are highly endangered," says Pfenninger. Until the genetic information of all species in at least one taxon is thoroughly studied, no one will know just how many cryptic species exist. "It could be as high as 30%," Pfenninger says.
"I'm extremely surprised by their results," says Alex Smith of the University of Guelph2 in Ontario3, Canada. "It's a call to arms to keep doing the broad kind of genetic studies that we are doing."
Sampling as many individuals as possible, scientists hope to complete work on all fish and birds in another 5 to 10 years. Once either of these taxonomic groups is completed, Pfenninger says researchers will able to decide how many cryptic species exist throughout the animal kingdom.
Examples of cryptic species include the African elephant. A 2001 study found the elephants were actually two genetically distinct, non-interbreeding species, the African bush elephant and the African elephant. The species are currently listed as vulnerable and threatened, respectively, by the World Conservation Union （WCU）4.
The reclassifications are more than an academic exercise. They define populations that have evolved independently of each other and whose genetic differences can have significant consequences.
In the early 1900s misidentification of mosquito species based on morphology confused attempts to control malaria in Europe. Ultimately, what was thought to be a single species was actually made up of six sibling species, only three of which transmitted the disease. "The basic unit in biology is always the species, and you have to know what you are dealing with," Pfenninger says. Much previous research is now no longer used, he says, because it is not clear what species was being studied. （428 words）
41 Which of the following about the significance of the research on cryptic species is NOT true?
A The results of the research can help the development of many other research areas.
B The results of the research can help the development of biodiversity estimates.
C The results of the research can help our understanding of infectious disease evolution.
D The results of the research can help our understanding of "survival of the fittest."
42 What was scientists' understanding of cryptic species?
A They occurred in equal numbers in all biogeographical regions.
B They were mostly found in insects and reptiles.
C They were likely to be in tropical rather than temperate regions.
D Both B and C.
43 Do scientists know how many cryptic species exist?
A Not yet.
B Yes, they do.
C They will know the answer in another one or two years.
D They will never know the answer.
44 Which of the following about the African bush elephant and the African elephant is true?
A The WCU are interbreeding those elephants.
B They are interbreeding species.
C They are two genetically distant species.
D They depend on each other for survival.
45 People were confused in their attempts to control malaria in Europe in the early 1900s, because scientists
A identified only one mosquito species instead of six species.
B thought only three mosquito species transmitted disease.
C thought there was only one mosquito species.
D did not know what species was being studied
Weighing too much can damage your health, and obesity is a growing problem for both kids and adults around the world.
＿＿＿＿＿（46）. A new study has found that elementary school students who slept too little were more likely to gain pounds.
In the United States today, some 9 million children over the age of 6 are obese.
Past studies have shown a link between sleeping less and weighing more, but scientists have had a tough time determining "which came first, the chicken or the egg," says Julie C. Lumeng of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
In other words, it hasn't been clear whether kids who weigh too much have trouble sleeping, or ＿＿＿＿＿（47）. Both scenarios seemed equally possible.
To get a better idea of which causes which, Lumeng and colleagues interviewed the parents of 785 third graders from around the United States. The parents answered questions about how well their kids slept that year.＿＿＿＿＿（48）.
By sixth grade, 18 percent of kids involved in the study were obese. The scientists found no relationship between weight and the students' race or gender. It also didn't matter how strict their parents were, or whether they were boys or girls.＿＿＿＿＿（49）.
Instead, sleep seemed to be the key factor. Over the 3 years of the study, the children averaged a healthy 9.5 hours of sleep a night. Some kids, however, slept a lot more－or less－than others.
For the sixth graders, every hour of sleep above the 9.5-hour average was linked to a 20 percent lower risk of being obese. ＿＿＿＿＿（50）. Every extra hour of sleep they got was linked to a 40 percent drop in obesity by sixth grade.
"I expected we'd find that this sleep link with obesity was just a bunch of bunk," says Lumeng, a pediatrician. But their findings were convincing. No matter how her team looked at the link, "we couldn't make it go away."
A Obesity struck all of these groups equally
B Three years later, the parents answered the same questions
C They found that obesity is a serious problem.
D Whether sleeping less leads to weight gain.
E Sleep appeared doubly important for the third graders.
F Sleep might be one answer to the problem
You need a Nap
Medical experts say most Americans do not get ＿＿51＿＿ sleep. They say more Americans need to rest for a short period in the middle of the day. They are advising people to sleep lightly before ＿＿52＿＿ with other activities.
One study earlier this year found that persons who sleep for a few minutes during the day were less ＿＿53＿＿ to die of disease. The study followed more than 2,300 Greek adults ＿＿54＿＿ about six years. Adult who rested for half an hour ＿＿55＿＿ three times a week had a 37 percent lower risk of dying from heart disease than those who did not nap.
Study organizers said the ＿＿56＿＿ evidence was in working men. They said naps might improve health by mitigating tension caused by work.
Some European and Latin American businesses have supported the ＿＿57＿＿ of napping for many years. They urge people to ＿＿58＿＿ work, go home and have a nap before returning. In the United States, some companies let workers rest briefly in their offices. They believe this reduces in their offices. They believe this reduces ＿＿59＿＿ and accidents, and also ＿＿60＿＿ the amount of work a person can do.
Sleep experts say it is likely that people make more mistakes at work than at other times. They say people should not carry ＿＿61＿＿ important duties when they feel sleepy. And they say the best thing to do is to take a nap. About twenty minutes of rest is ＿＿62＿＿ you need. Experts say this provides extra energy and can increase your effectiveness ＿＿63＿＿ the end of the day. But experts warn that a nap ＿＿64＿＿ last no more than twenty to thirty minutes. A longer nap will put the body into deep sleep2 and waking up3 will be ＿＿65＿＿.
1 A sweet B sound C sufficient D less
2 A checking B sharing C continuing D meeting
3 A lovely B likely C fondly D finely
4 A for B at C in D with
5 A at least B at most C at last D at first
6 A strongest B biggest C clearest D powerless
7 A experiment B reform C idea D way
8 A change B improve C repeat D leave
9 A work B mistakes C energy D time
10 A increase B decrease C improve D low
11 A about B out C off D away
12 A all B few C any D nothing
13 A unless B while C until D during
14 A may B would C should D might
15 A helpful B easy C difficult D happy
1. B 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. A
6. A 7. D 8. D 9. C 10. A
11. A 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. D
16. A 17. A 18. C 19. B 20. B
21. A 22. C
23. F 24. B 25. D 26. C 27. C
28. A 29. E 30. D
31. D 32. D 33. C 34. B 35. B
36. C 37. C 38. A 39. C 40. A
41. D 42. D 43. A 44. C 45. A
46. F 47. D 48. B 49. A 50. E
51. C 52. C 53. B 54. A 55. A
56. A 57. C 58. D 59. B 60. A
61. B 62. A 63. C 64. C 65. C