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2010职称英语考前每日一练[理工类B级-第50期]

2010-02-22 09:56 来源:  纠错 打印 收藏   

完整试卷版

  第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)
  下面共有15个句子,每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的4个选项中选择1个与划线部分意义最相近的词或短语。答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
  1 Our school-run factory produce various kinds of chemical devices last year.
    A turned into    B  turned up
    C turned out    D  turned off
  2 In my family, we eat two kilos of potatoes every week.
    A waste         B dispose
    C consume   D exhaust
  3 Development in information (IT)will cause a revolution in business administration.
    A bring around   B bring about
    C bring out      D bring up
  4 Mary and I got used to the new college life soon, but Tom didn’t.
    A see to         B look into
    C adapted to  D stuck to
  5 I want to buy my husband a new tie to match his brown suit.
    A go into    B go after
    C go with    D go by
  6 The news will horrify everyone.
    A attract    B terrify
    C tempt     D excite
  7 Her sister urged her to apply for the job.
    A advised  B caused
    C forced   D promised
  8 John Hanson helped draft instructions for Maryland’s delegates to the Stamp Act Congress.
    A clarify       B formulate
    C revise   D contribute
  9 Her behavior is extremely childish
    A simple     B immature
    C beautiful  D foolish
  10 The scientists began to accumulate a huge mass of data.
    A build up   B put up
    C make up   D clear up
  11 Data from Voyager II have presented astronomers with a puzzle about why our outermost planet exists.
    A problem   B mystery
    C question   D point
  12 They always mock me because I am ugly.
    A smile    B looked down upon  
    C belittle   D laugh at
  13 The secretary telephoned Mrs. Philip and found she had some rooms available.
    A ring    B called
    C asked    D phone
  14 He was assigned to do the research.
    A asked    B invited
    C supposed   D needed
  15 What he said didn’t make sense , therefore, I would do anything to help him.
    A was not valuable    B was not principle   
    C was not reasonable    D was not superior
 
  第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)
  下面这篇短文后列出7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把A涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题卡上把B涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把C涂黑。

How to Prevent Car Stolen

  Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got a great catch. But he is in for an unwelcome surprise. The car is fitted with a remote immobiliser (锁止器), and a radio signal from a control centre miles away will ensure that once the thief switches the engine off, he will not be able to start it again.
  The idea goes like this. A control box fitted to the car contains a mini-cell-phone, a micro- processor and memory, and a GPS (全球定位系统) satellite positioning receiver. If the car is stolen, a coded cell-phone signal will tell the control centre to block the vehicle's engine management system and prevent the engine being restarted.
  In the UK, a set of technical fixes is already making life harder for car thieves. 'The pattern of vehicle crime has changed,' says Martyn Randall, a security expert. He says it would only take him a few minutes to teach a person how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools. But only if the car is more than 10 years old.
  Modern cars are far tougher to steal, as their engine management computer won't allow them to start unless they receive a unique ID code beamed out by the ignition (点火) key. In the UK, technologies like this have helped achieve a 31% drop in vehicle-related crime since 1997.
  But determined criminals are still managing to find other ways to steal cars, often by getting hold of the owner's keys. And key theft is responsible for 40% of the thefts of vehicles fitted with a tracking system.
  If the car travels 100 metres without the driver confirming their ID, the system will send a signal to an operations centre that it has been stolen. The hundred metres minimum avoids false alarms due to inaccuracies in the GPS signal.
  Staff at the centre will then contact the owner to confirm that the car really is missing, and keep police informed of the vehicle's movements via the car's GPS unit.
  16 The thief can not start the engine again once he switches the engine off.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
  17 A micro- processor will tell the control centre to block the vehicle's engine.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
  18 According to author it is much tougher to steal modern cars than old ones.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
  19 Most thefts of vehicles fitted with a tracking system are conducted by getting hold of the owner's keys.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
  20 The system will send a signal to an operations centre after the driver confirm their ID.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
  21 There will be no car steeling thanks to the new system.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
  22 GPS unit installed in the cars can tell where the vehicle is.
  A Right       B Wrong      C Not mentioned
 
  第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)
  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选取项中为第2~5段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第27~30题材要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确选项,分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

Computers and Human Beings

  1 As Dr. Samuel Johnson said in a different era about ladies preaching, the surprising thing about computers is not that they think less well than a man, but that they think at all. The early electronic computer did not have much going for it except a marvelous memory and some good math skills. But today the best models can be wired up to learn by experience, follow an argument, ask proper questions and write poetry and music. They can also carry on somewhat puzzling conversations.
  2 Computers imitate life. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better. Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes unclear. In another 15 years or so, we will see the computer as a new form of life.
  3 The opinion seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But drives can be programmed into the computer's brain just as nature programmed them into our human brains as a part of the equipment for survival.
  4 Computers match people in some roles, and when fast decisions are needed in a crisis, they often surpass them. Having evolved when the pace of life was slower, the human brain has an inherent defect that prevents it from absorbing several streams of information simultaneously and acting on them quickly. Throw too many things at the brain at one time and it freezes up.
  5 We are still in control, but the capabilities of computers are increasing at a fantastic rate, while raw human intelligence is changing slowly, if at all. Computer power has increased ten times every eight years since 1946. In the 1990s, when the sixth generation appears, the reasoning power of an intelligence built out of silicon will begin to match that of the human brain.
  6 That does not mean the evolution of intelligence has ended on the earth. Judging by the past, we can expect that a new species will arise out of man, surpassing his achievements as he has surpassed those of his predecessor. Only a carbon chemistry enthusiast would assume that the new species must be man's flesh-and-blood descendants. The new kind of intelligent life is more likely to be made of silicon.
  23 Paragraph 1 _____.
  24 Paragraph 2 _____.
  25 Paragraph 3 _____.
  26 Paragraph 4 _____.
  A New era of computers
  B Evolution of intelligence
  C Early electronic computer
  D A ridiculous opinion
  E Computer's imitation
  F Human's inherent defect
  27 today the best computer models can be wired up to learn by experience and ___.
  28 Computer power has increased ten times every eight years  ___.
  29 human brain has an inherent defect that prevents it from ___.
  30 evolution of intelligence has not ended because  ___ .
  A marvelous memory and some good math skills.
  B somewhat puzzling conversations etc.
  C a new species will arise out of man
  D absorbing several streams of information simultaneously
  E since 1946
  F intelligent life which are made of silicon
 
  第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)
  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每题材后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择一个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
  第一篇

Putting Plants to Work

  Using the power of the sun is nothing new. People have had solar-powered calculators and buildings with solar panels for decades. But plants are the real experts: They've been using sunlight as an energy source for billions of years.
  Ceils in the green leaves of plants work like tiny factories to convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into1 sugars and starches, stored energy that the plants can use. This conversion process is called photosynthesis. Unfortunately, unless you're a plant, it's difficult and expensive to convert sunlight into storable energy. That's why scientists are taking a closer look at exactly how plants do it.
  Some scientists are trying to get plants, or biological cells that act like plants, to work as miniature photosynthetic power stations. For example, Mafia Ghirardi of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo. 2, is working with green algae3. She's trying to trick them into producing hydrogen4 instead of sugars when they perform photosynthesis. Once the researchers can get the algae working efficiently, the hydrogen that they produce could be used to power fuel Cells in cars or to generate electricity,
  The algae are grown in narrow-necked glass bottles to produce hydrogen in the lab. During photosynthesis, plants normally make sugars or starches. "But under certain conditions, a lot of algae are able to use the sunlight energy not to store starch, but to make hydrogen. " Ghirardi says. For example, algae will produce hydrogen in an air free environment. It's the oxygen in the air that prevents algae from making hydrogen most of the time.
  Working in an air free environment, however, is difficult. It's not a practical way to produce cheap energy. But Ghirardi and her colleagues have discovered that by removing a chemical called sulfate from the environment that the algae grow in, they will make hydrogen instead of sugars, even when air is present.
  Unfortunately, removing the sulfate also makes the algae's cells work very slowly, and not much hydrogen is produced. Still, the researchers see this as a first step in their goal to produce hydrogen efficiently from algae. With more work, they may be able to speed the cells' activity and produce larger quantities of hydrogen.
  The researchers hope that algae will one day be an easy-to-use fuel source. The organisms are cheap to get and to feed, Ghirardi says, and they can grow almost anywhere: "You can grow them in a reactor, in a pond. You can grow them in the ocean. There's a lot of flexibility in how you can use these organisms."
  31 What does the writer say about plants concerning solar energy?
  A Plants are 'the real experts in producing solar energy.
  B Plants have been used to produce solar energy.
  C Plants have been using solar energy for billions of years.
  D Plants have been a source of solar energy.
  32 Why do some scientists study how plants convert sunlight carbon dioxide, and water into sugars and starches?
  A Because they want algae to produce sugars and starches.
  B Because they want green plants to become a new source of energy.
  C Because they want to turn plant sugars to a new form of energy.
  D Because they want to make photosynthesis more efficient.
  33 According to the fifth paragraph, under what conditions are algae able to use solar energy to make hydrogen?
  A When there is no oxygen in the air.
  B When there is a lot of oxygen in the air.
  C When photosynthesis is taking place.
  D When enough starch is stored.
  34 Researchers have met with difficulties when trying to make algae produce hydrogen efficiently. Which one of the following is one such difficulty?
  A It is not possible to remove sulfate from the environment.
  B It is not possible to work in an airfree environment to produce hydrogen.
  C It is not easy to make sugars instead of hydrogen.
  D It is too slow for algae to produce hydrogen when the sulfate is removed.
  35 What is NOT true of algae?
  A is an useful fuel
  B they can grow almost anywhere.
  C They are cheap to get.
  D They can be used in many ways.
  第二篇

Smart Window

  Windows not only let light in to cut down an electricity use for lighting, but the light coming through the window also provides heat. However, windows are not something people typically associate with being a cutting edge1 technology. Researchers are now working on new technologies that enable a window to quickly change from clear to dark and anywhere in between with a flip of a switch2.
  "It took us a long time to figure out what a window really is," says Claes Granqvist. He's a professor of solid-state physics at Uppsala University in Sweden3. "It's contact with the outside world. You have to have visual contact with the surrounding world to feel well." So, windows and natural light are important for improving the way people feel when they're stuck indoors.
  Yet, windows are the weak link in a building when it comes to energy and temperature control. In the winter, cold air leaks in. When it's hot and sunny, sunlight streams in. All of this sunlight carries lots of heat and energy. And all of this extra heat forces people to turn on their air conditioners. Producing blasts of cold air, which can feel so refreshing, actually suck up enormous amounts of electricity in buildings around the world.
  Windows have been a major focus of energy research for a long time. Over the years, scientists have come up with a variety of strategies for coating, glazing, and layering windows to make them more energy efficient. Smart windows go a step further. They use chromogenic technologies which involve changes of color.
  Electrochromic windows use electricity to change color. For example, a sheet of glass coated with thin layers of chemical compound such as tungsten oxide works a bit like a battery. Tungsten oxide is clear when an electric charge is applied and dark when the charge is removed, that is, when the amount of voltage is decreased, the window darkens until it's completely dark after all electricity is taken away. So applying a voltage determines whether the window looks clear or dark.
  One important feature that makes a smart window so smart is that it has a sort of "memory." All it takes is a small jolt of voltage to turn the window from one state to the other. Then, it stays that way. Transitions take anywhere from 10 seconds to a few minutes, depending on the size of the window. The development of smart windows could mean that massive air conditioning systems may no longer need. "In the future," Granqvist says, "our buildings may look different.
  36 Which of the following statements does not indicate the importance of windows as described in the first two paragraphs?
  A Windows can change from clear to dark to save energy.
  B Windows help to save energy by letting light in.
  C Windows help to save energy by providing heat.
  D Windows enable people to have contact with the outside world.
  37 When are windows the weak link in a building?
  A In the cold winter.
  B In the hot summer.
  C When air conditioners are turned on.
  D Both A and B.
  38 What are smart windows, according to Paragraph 4?
  A Windows that are coated.
  B Windows that are glazed.
  C Windows the color of which can be changed.
  D Windows that have many layers.
  39 To make electrochromic windows change color, what is applied to the window glass?
  A Electricity.
  B Tungsten oxide.
  C A battery.
  D A voltage.
  40 What will be the benefit if the research on smart windows turns out to be successful, according to the last paragraph?
  A The buildings will look different.
  B Windows can be as large as you want.
  C We may not need air conditioners any more.
  D They are less expensive than traditional windows.
  第三篇

U.S. People

  A report consistently brought back by visitors to the U.S. is how friendly, courteous and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment. For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence.
  Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world. The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality.
  Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn't take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation. Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner-amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly.
  The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition. As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
  41 In the eyes of visitors from the outside world,_____.
  A rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US
  B small-minded officials deserve a serious comment
  C Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors
  D most Americans are ready to offer help
  42 It could be inferred from the last paragraph that _____.
  A culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship
  B courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated
  C various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends
  D social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions
  43 Families in frontier settlements welcomed strangers _____.
  A to improve their hard life
  B in view of their long-distance travel
  C because of the dullness and loneliness in their daily life
  D out of a charitable impulse
  44 The tradition of hospitality to strangers _____.
  A tends to be superficial and artificial
  B is generally well kept up in the united States
  C is always understood properly
  D has something to do with the busy tourist trails
  45 What's the author's attitudes toward the American's friendliness?
  A Favorable.
  B Unfavorable.
  C Indifferent.
  D Neutral.
 
  第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)
  阅读下面的短文,文章中有5处空白,文章后面有6组文字,请根据文章的内容选择5组文字,将其分别放回文章原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

Ready to scream?

  Fear can be fun. Many young people queue up to ride very fast and scary(吓人的)roller coasters, screaming but enjoying themselves. Other people like to read "goose bumps"(鸡皮疙瘩)books or watch horror movies(恐怖电影)at night, scared to death but feeling excited._____(46)
  Fear is an ancient way of surviving. Being scared makes animals (including humans) flee (逃走) from danger and save themselves. It is because of fear that we have lived through millions of years of evolution. Those who lacked a strong fear response (反应) were more likely to be killed,_____(47)
  What happens in the brain when something frightens you?
  Nerves (神经) that begin at the eyes and ears lead to a part of the brain called the amygdala (类扁桃体). When you suddenly see a snake, for example, the amygdala makes you freeze, perspire (流汗), have a quickened heartbeat, or run very fast.
  However, seeing the snake also uses another part of the brain, the cortex (皮层). It analyzes (分析) the situation, and if it finds that the snake is only made of rubber it tells your heart and the rest of your body to calm down. _____(48)
  Back to the first question: Why do some people like to make themselves scared?
  One reason is that we can play games with fear,_____(49)Kalin said: "To believe we have control over a situation gives us a feeling of power."
  "Scary movies or novels are good practice to prepare young people for the real thing. _____(50).
  And there might be some evolutionary advantage to being able to adjust this system that is there to protect people.
  A Thrills(恐惧)such as roller coaster rides also go to the brain's pleasure centre
  B Why do people like being scared?
  C and find ways to reduce the scariness by looking away or thinking of something else
  D leaving the more timid and careful to pass their genes(基因)onto the next generation.
  E Think of the amygdala as the engine and the cortex as the brake.
  F screaming saves ancient people's life.
 
  第六部分 完形填空(第51~65题,每题1分,共15分)
  下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。

Cell Phone Lets Your Secret Out

  Your cell phone holds secrets about you. Besides the names and __51__ that you've programmed into it, traces of your DNA2linger on the device, according to a new study.
  DNA is genetic material that __52__ in every cell. Like your fingerprint, your DNA is unique to you  53  you have an identical twin. Scientists today routinely analyze DNA in blood, saliva, or hair left __54__ at the scene of a crime. The results often help detectives identify criminals and their __55__ Your cell phone can reveal more about you __56__ you might think.
  Meghan J. McFadden, a scientist at McMaster University1in Hamilton, Ontario, heard about a crime in which the suspect bled onto a cell phone and later dropped the __57__ This made her wonder whether traces of DNA lingered on cell phones——even when no blood was involved. __58__ she and colleague Margaret Wallace of the City University of New York analyzed the flip-open phones3 of 10 volunteers. They used swabs to collect __59__ traces of the users from two parts of the phone: the outside, where the user holds it, and the __60__, which is placed at the user's ear.
  The scientists scrubbed the phones using a solution made mostly of alcohol. The aim of washing was to __61__ all detectable traces of DNA. The owners got their phones __62__ for another week. Then the researchers collected the phones and repeated the swabbing of each phone once more.
  The scientists discovered DNA that __63__ to the phone's speaker on each of the phones. Better samples were collected from the outside of each phone, but those swabs also picked up DNA that belonged to other people who had apparently also handled the phone. __64__, DNA showed up even in swabs that were taken immediately after the phones were scrubbed. That suggests that washing won't remove all traces of evidence from a criminal's device. So cell phones can now be added to the __65__ of clues that can clinch a crime-scene investigation.
  51. A numbers         B music       C secrets      D films
  52. A appeals         B appoint     C appears      D applies
  53. A because         B unless      C although     D still
  54. A about          B in         C for         D behind
  55. A victims         B death       C men         D policemen
  56. A when           B until       C before       D than
  57. A device         B paper       C file        D document
  58. A However         B So         C But         D Nevertheless
  59. A invisible       B non-existent  C visible      D apparent
  60. A card           B keys       C screen       D speaker
  61. A regain         B remove      C stay        D keep
  62. A upon           B without     C back        D with
  63. A was given       B belonged     C was owned     D became
  64. A Generally       B Surprisingly  C Disappointedly D Shortly
  65. A explanation      B discovery    C book        D list

  【参考答案】

  第一部分
  1 C    2 C    3 B   4 C    5 C

  6 B    7 A    8 B   9 B    10 A

  11 B   12 D   13 B   14 A   15 C

  第二部分
  16 A   17 B   18 A   19 B   20 B

  21 C   22 A

  第三部分
  23 A   24 E   25 D   26 F   27 A

  28 E   29 D   30 C

  第四部分
  31 C   32 B   33 A   34 D   35 A

  36 A   37 D   38 C   39 B   40 C

  41 D   42 A   43 C   44 B   45 A

  第五部分
  46 B   47 D   48 E   49 C   50 A

  第六部分
  51 A   52 C   53 B   54 D   55 A

  56 D   57 A   58 B   59 A   60 D

  61 B   62 C   63 B   64 B   65 D

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