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2010职称英语考前每日一练[卫生类A级-第50期]

2010-02-22 09:54 来源:  纠错 打印 收藏   

完整试题

  第一部分:词汇选择(第1-15题,每题1分,共15分)
  下面共有15句子,每个句子均有一个词或短语划有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的四个选项中选择一个与划线部分意义最相近的词或短语。答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
  1.The weather here has been exceptionally mild.
  A extremely      B identically  C fashionably  D faithfully
  2. He was said to have been removed from the position of manager for a recent conflict with an important customer.
  A dismissed   B released C picked  D exposed
  3.I didn’t immediately realize that how serious the situation was.
  A. once more  B  right now    C  right down   D once again
  4.I reserve the right to disagree.
  A deserve  B keep   C perceive         D notice
  5.Do you believe these two intimate friends used to be enemies?
  A bearable   B internal   C close      D believable
  6.Your compass and clock are the most essential instruments in sailing.
  A equipments    B tools   C instructions        D opportunities
  7.This book embraces many subjects.
  A adopts  B covers  C presses  D accepts
  8. We are wasting precious time sitting around here.
  A valuable     B leisure  C spare      D previous
  9. You must shine your shoes.
  A lighten    B clean     C wash        D polish
  10.A beautiful woman attended to me in that store yesterday.
  A waited on  B talked to  C spoke to          D stayed with
  11. These are our motives for doing it.
  A reasons    B arguments   C targets     D pursuit
  12. Successful leaders dominate events rather than react to them.
  A control    B contribute   C convey     D contact
  13. The example was fundamental to the argument.
  A impressive    B public   C essential     D slight
  14.He did his best to inspire his team to great efforts.
  A persuade    B instruct   C encourage     D discourage
  15. I notified him that the meeting had been postponed.
  A informed    B observed   C mocked     D misled
 
  第二部分:阅读判断(每题1分,共七分)
  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后列出了七个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子作出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把A涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题卡上把B涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把C涂黑。

Spare a Kidney?

  It is no longer unusual for a spouse or relative to donate a kidney to a loved one, but the number of Americans who have given a kidney to a friend, a co-worker or even a complete stranger has risen sharply from 68 in 1994 to 176 in 1998.
  There are many reasons. First, it's possible to live a normal life with only one kidney. (The remaining kidney enlarges to make up most of the difference.) In addition a kidney from a live donor lasts longer than a kidney taken from someone who has died suddenly. But the biggest change in the past few years is that transplant surgeons have started using laparoscopic techniques to remove the donor kidney through a much smaller incision, and this can cut recovery time for the donor from six weeks to four weeks.
  Just because you do something, however, it doesn't mean you should. Donating a kidney means undergoing an operation that carries some risk. You could argue that you may be helping to save a life, but you certainly can't pretend that you're better off with one kidney instead of two.
  So, what are the risks? "As with any major operation, there is a chance of dying, of reoperation due to bleeding, of infection, of vein clots in the legs or a hernia at the incision," says Dr. Arthur Matas, director of the renal-transplant program at the university of Minnesota Medical Center in Minneapolis. Even laparoscopy, a relatively new technique for kidney donation, is not risk-free. Doctors estimate that chances of dying from the procedure are about 3 in 10,000.
  There's no money to be made; selling an organ is illegal. But the recipient's insurance normally covers your operation and immediate aftercare. Your costs can include hotel bills, lost pay during recovery or possible future disability.
  Although transplant centers must evaluate any potential donor's suitability, it never hurts to have an independent opinion. The most common contraindications are heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.
  Never let anyone, not even a close relative, pressure you into giving up an organ —— no matter if you're healthy. "There's often the feeling that you're not a good friend, father, mother if you don't do this," says Arthus Caplan, director of the University of Pennsylvania's center for Bioethics. Some transplant centers will invent a "medical problem" on behalf of those who are reluctant to donate but feel they can't say no.
  16. From 1994 to 1998 the number of Americans who had donated a kidney reached 244.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
  17. One of the reasons why the number of kidney donors has risen is that one is better off with one kidney instead of two.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
  18.Yo don't have to be dead to donate a kidney, but you had better know the risks before you give it up.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
  19. None of the Americans who donates a kidney during the period lasting from 1994 to 1998 died from the procedure.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
  20. No one sells organs in the U.S. since it is illegal.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
  21. People with heart disease, diabetes and high pressure are not suitable for kidney donation.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
  22. Some transplant centers invent "medical problems" to cheat potential kidney donors.
  A. Right     B. Wrong     C. Not mentioned
 
  第三部分:概括大意与完成句子(每题1分,共8分)
  阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有2项测试任务:(1)1——4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2——5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5——8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项,分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

How we form first impression

  We all have first impression of someone we just met. But why? Why do we form an opinion about someone without really knowing anything about him or her - aside perhaps from a few remarks or readily observable traits.
  The answer is related to how your brain allows you to be aware of the world. Your brain is so sensitive in picking up facial traits, even very minor difference in a how a person's eyes, ears, nose, or mouth are placed in relation to each other make you see him or her as different. In fact, your brain continuously processes incoming sensory information - the sights and sounds of your world. Theses incoming "signals" are compared against a host of "memories" stored in the brain areas called the cortex (大脑皮层)system to determine what these new signals "mean".
  If you see someone you know and like at school, your brain says "familiar and safe". "If you see someone new, it says, "new-potentially threatening". Then your brain starts to match features of this stranger with other "known" memories. The height, weight, dress, ethnicity, gestures and tone of voice are all matched up. The more unfamiliar the characteristics, the more your brain may say, "This is new. I don't like this person." Or else, "I am intrigued." Or your brain may perceive a new face but familiar clothes, ethnicity, gestures - like your other friends; so your brain says: "I like this person." But theses preliminary "impressions" can be dead wrong.
  When we stereotype people, we use a less mature form of thinking (not unlike the immature thinking of a very young child) that makes simplistic and categorical impressions of others. Rather than learn about the depth and breadth of people - their history, interest, values, strengths, and true character - we categorize them as jocks, geeks, or freaks.
  However, if we resist initial stereotypical impressions, we have a chance to be aware of what a person is truly like. If we spend time with a person, hear about his or her life, hopes, dreams, and become aware of the person's character, we use a different, more mature style of thinking-and the most complex areas of our cortex, which allow us to be humane.
  23. Paragraph 2 _____.
  24. Paragraph 3 _____.
  25. Paragraph 4 _____.
  26. Paragraph 5 _____.
  A ways of departure from immature and simplistic impressions
  B. comment on first impression
  C. illustration of first impression
  D. comparing incoming sensory information against memories
  E threatening aspect of first impressions
  D differences among Jocks(骗子), Geeks(反常人) and Freaks(怪人)
  27. Sensory information is one that is received through _____.
  28. You interpret _____ by comparing it against the memories already stored in your brain.
  29. The way we stereotype people is a less mature form of thinking, which is similar to _____.
  30. We can use our mature style of thinking thanks to _____.
  A a stranger's less mature type of thinking
  B. the most complex areas of our cortex
  C. The immature form of thinking of a very young people
  D. the meaning of incoming sensory information
  E. the sights and sounds of the world
  F. an opportunity to analyze different forms of thinking
 
  第四部分:阅读理解(每题3分,共45分)
  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每道题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
  第一篇

Obesity(肥胖): the scourge(祸害)of the western world

  Obesity is rapidly becoming a new scourge of the western world,delegates agreed at the 11th European Conference on the issue in Vienna Wednesday to Saturday.According to statements before the opening of the conference-of 2,000 specialists from more than 50 countries-1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight,and 250 million are obese.
  Professor Bernhard Ludvik of Vienna General Hospital said:"Obesity is a chronic illness.In Germany,20 percent of the people are already affected,but in Japan only one per cent.''But he said that there was hope for sufferers thanks to the new scientific discoveries and medication.
  Professor Friedrich Hopichler of Salzberg said:"We are living in the new age(but) with the metabolism of a stone-age man." "I have just been to the United States.It is really terrible.A pizza shop is springing up on every corner.We have been overrun by fast food and Coca-Cola-ization."
  Many of the experts stressed that obesity was a potential killer.Hopichler said:''Eighty percent of all diabetics are obese,also fifty per cent of all patients with high blood pressure and fifty per cent with adipose tissue complaints.'' "Ten per cent more weight means thirteen per cent more risk of heart disease.Reducing one's weight by ten per cent leads to thirteen per cent lower blood pressure.''
  Another expert Hermann Toplak said that the state health services should improve their financing of preventive programs."Though the health insurance pays for surgery (such as reducing the size of the stomach)when the body-mass index is more than 40.That is equivalent to a weight of 116 kilograms for a height of 1.70 meters.One should start earlier."
  Ludvik said that prevention should begin in school."Child obesity (fat deposits)correlates with the time which children spend in front of TV sets."
  The consequences were only apparent later on.No more than fifteen per cent of obese people lived to the average life expectancy.for their population group.
  31.It is estimated that there are __________ people suffering from obesity in the world.
  A)250,000,000
  B)1,200,000,000
  C)1,450,000,000
  D)950,000,000
  32.It seems that the __________ people are least affected by obesity among the developed countries and areas mentioned in the passage.
  A)European
  B)German
  C)American
  D)Japanese
  33. Which of the following is most often accompanied by obesity?
  A)High blood pressure.
  B)Fatty tissue complaints.
  C)Diabetes.
  D)Stomach-ache.
  34. What is the correlation between body weight and heart disease and blood pressure?
  A)Ten per cent less body weight means ten per cent less risk of heart disease and high blood pressure?
  B)Thirteen per cent more body weight means ten per cent more risk of heart disease and high blood pressure.
  C)The more body weight one gains,the more risk of heart disease and high blood pressure he has.
  D)The less body weight one gains,the more risk of heart disease and the less risk of high blood pressure he has.
  35.From the last paragraph we may infer that one of the effective measures suggested by Ludnik to prevent children from being obese would be
  A)not to permit them to watch TV at all.
  B)to tell them to spend less time watching TV
  C)to turn off TV when they are in front of TV sets.
  D)to calculate accurately the time that a child spends watching TV.
  第二篇

15 Million Americans Suffer from Social Anxiety Disorder

  Social anxiety disorder prevents some 15 million Americans from leading normal social and romantic lives, a new survey finds.
  The disorder leaves many isolated, ashamed and often misdiagnosed. Thirty-six percent of those with social anxiety disorder have symptoms for 10 years or more before seeking help, the Anxiety Disorders Association of America reports.
  "Social anxiety disorder is when somebody has an intense, persistent and irrational fear of social or performance situations," Jerilyn Ross, the association's president and CEO, said during a teleconference Wednesday.
  "The condition causes people to avoid common, everyday situations and even other people for fear of being judged or criticized or humiliated or embarrassing themselves," Ross said.
  Social anxiety disorder can interfere with daily routines and job performance, Ross noted. "It also makes it very difficult for people to develop friends and romantic partnerships," she said.
  People with this disorder recognize their fear is excessive and irrational, Ross noted. "But they feel powerless to do anything about it," she said.
  Social anxiety disorder can start in the early teens, Dr. Mark H. Pollack, director of the Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders and a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, said during the teleconference.
  "This is a disorder that starts affecting people early on 1," Pollack said. "The typical age of onset is early adolescence, age 12 or 13, and many individuals report a history of anxiety dating back to2 earlier childhood."
  The disorder also has physical symptoms, including heart palpitations, feelings that their throat will close up3, sweating, blushing, faintness, trembling and stammering, Ross said.
  Among people with the disorder, 75 percent said the condition affected their ability to do normal activities. In addition, 69 percent said they didn't want people to think they were crazy, and 58 percent said they were embarrassed by their condition, Ross said.
  However, when the condition is diagnosed and treated, many reported improvement in their lives. In fact, 59 percent who were receiving treatment said treatment had a positive effect on their ability to have a romantic relationship. In addition, 39 percent who had received treatment said knowing that treatment can be successful aided their decision to get help, Ross noted.
  36. People with social anxiety disorder are known for their fear of ___________.
  A being left alone.
  B leading normal lives.
  C embarrassing other people.
  D facing social or performance situations.
  37. What do people with social anxiety disorder think of their fear?
  A They think it's beyond their control.
  B They think it's beneficial.
  C They think it's controllable.
  D They think it's justified.
  38. Which is NOT true of people with social anxiety disorder?
  A They're often isolated and ashamed.
  B They find it difficult to make friends.
  C They often fail to get timely treatment.
  D They tend to judge or criticize other people.
  39. The symptoms of social anxiety disorder include all the following EXCEPT _____________.
  A heart palpitations.
  B sore throat.
  C sweating.
  D blushing.
  40. It can be seen from the last paragraph that treatment of the disorder ______________.
  A has no positive effect at all.
  B is unavailable to most sufferers.
  C tends to be refused by the sufferers.
  D can lead to improvement in the sufferers' lives.
  第三篇

Immigration and Problems

  Hundreds of thousands of people supporting immigration rights in the US filled streets all over America in early 2006. Many held signs and American flags and asked to be treated as citizens - not criminals. Many of these supported legislation from Senator John McCain that would open a path to citizenship to immigrants who were already in the country illegally. Proposed legislation from other politicians called for stricter measures - including rounding up1undocumented immigrants and sending them back to their home countries.
  Canadian officials say that immigration applications continue to rise. Some want to keep the doors open. They need the labor. About 400,000 immigrants were allowed into the country in 2005, according to the Canadian Government statistics. However, all this growth means that cities need to adapt. Newcomers don't always make a smooth transition into jobs for which they are skilled. So industries are using mentoring programs to help new immigrants find proper jobs.
  With the large numbers of undocumented African immigrants arriving in the Canary Islands and showing no sign of abating, the Spanish Government has decided to get tough2. There will be no more mass amnesties for illegals, and anyone coming to Spain without permission will be sent back, the government has announced. About 23,000 migrants landed on the islands in 2006, and riots have erupted in some crowded reception centers. This has promoted local authorities to appeal to the United Nations for help.
  France's new immigration and integration law gives the government new powers to encourage high-skilled migration. It takes effect in 2007. The new law authorizes the government to identify particular professions where France has a talent shortage. Then the government will help these identified employers find immigrant workers with needed skills or qualifications. The selected foreign employees will be granted "skills and talents" visas, valid for three years. But some concern that it'll cause brain drain3 in developing countries.
  41. Many immigrants swarmed into streets in the US in early 2006, demanding that they should be treated as
  A) animals.
  B) citizens.
  C) civilians.
  D) criminals.
  42. Some Canadian officials want to keep the door open because
  A) Canada is in desperate need of talented people.
  B) Canada can feed a much larger population.
  C) Canada is suffering from labor shortage.
  D) Canada is a multicultural country.
  43. What has the Spanish Government decided to do?
  A) Help immigrants find proper jobs.
  B) Let immigrants freely enter the country.
  C) Integrate immigrants into the Spanish culture.
  D) Take tough measures against illegal immigration.
  44. After France's new immigration and integration law takes effect, it will
  A) lure overseas students back home.
  B) undermine the unity of the country.
  C) drain developing countries of talent.
  D) induce resentment among the French workers.
  45. The phrasal verb rounding up in paragraph 1 could be best replaced by
  A) capturing.
  B) encircling.
  C) separating.
  D) frightening.
 
  第五部分:补全短文(每题2分,共10分)
  阅读下面的短文,文章中有5处空白,文章后有6组文字,请根据文章的内容选择5组文字,将其分别放会文章原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置。

The Arctic Ice is Thawing

  Father Christmas may have to move his "workshop" from the North Pole because global warming is thawing the ice beneath his feet and his reindeers' feet as well. His "workshop" is in dire straits. The "platform" for the "workshop" is melting, said Stefan Norris of the World Wildlife Fund environmental group's Arctic Program.
  An eight-nation report by 250 scientists published recently predicted the Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in summer by 2100 because of a build-up of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, mainly from burning fossil fuels in cars or factories. The North Pole is getting more and more inhabitable to Father Christmas. ___46___. Young people learn that Father Christmas' "workshop" produces millions of gifts delivered by him on a flying, reindeer-drawn sleigh. Hollywood movies like "The Polar Express" tried to make viewers believe that Father Christmas lives at the North Pole. ___47___.
  The "Fortress of Solitude" is near the North Pole that could be under threat in a warmer world. Alan Boldt, spokesman of the Danish Ministry of Science, suggested ways to rescue Father Christmas. ___48___. Another alternative, he argued, would be building some electrical facilities to ensure the ice stays on the North Pole for him. "This should be a subject for the United Nations," he said. "Danmark could build windmills to provide Father Christmas with power." Denmark says Father Christmas's real home is Greenland, which will help, Denmark thinks, to strengthen its position in claiming the sovereignty over the Pole. ___49___.
  "Doesn't he already speak Danish?" Boldt said frostily when asked if Father Christmas would be forced to learn Danish if Denmark won international recognition of its claim to the Pole. Last month's Arctic report said the region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe, partly because dark ground or water, once uncovered, soaks up more heat than ice or snow. Finland has been most favored by Father Christmas and it has about 500,000 tourists a year to visit its Christmas center in Rovaniemi in Lapland6. ___50___.
  A. However, Nordic nations all reject it by claiming that their countries are his home.
  B. Therefore the North Pole is the most attractive place in the world.
  C. If Denmark's claim were accepted internationally, it would have the legal right to search for oil and gas at the North Pole.
  D. One of them would be building a giant floating ice rink for the workshop if the Pole thaws.
  E. Maybe Father Christmas has already moved to Rovaniemi.
  F. He may have to move from the North Pole within our children's lifetimes.
 
  第6部分:完型填空(每题1分,共15分)
  阅读下面的短文,文中有15处空白,每处空白给出了4个选项,请根据短文的内容从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案,并涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

Many Women Who Beat Cancer Don't Change Habits

  Many women who battle breast cancer will tell you it's a life-changing experience. However, a new study shows that for many__51__, the changes aren't always positive or permanent1.
  Beth Snoke has watched her mother and both grandmothers battle and survive breast__52__.So when she was diagnosed, there was no doubt in her mind __53__she had to do.
  "I do exactly what the doctors say as far as the medicine that I'm on, as__54__as the vitamins, the diet, and the fitness. And I can't stress enough__55__important that is," says Beth Snoke. But a surprising new study shows that __56__every woman who beats breast cancer is getting that message. In fact, nearly 40% of them say even__57__surviving breast cancer, they haven't made significant changes in the__58__they eat or how much they exercise.
  "Not all survivors are taking advantage of this teachable moment and making positive health changes in__59__life," says Electra Paskett, PhD, at Ohio State University's Comprehensive Cancer Center. Paskett says diet and exercise have been proven to not only help women feel better during and after treatment, they may__60__play a role in preventing some cancers from coming back.__61__growing evidence, some women just aren't listening.
  "Colon cancer survivors__62__exercise have actually been shown to have improved survival rates. So, yes, it is true that perhaps by making some of these healthy choices we can actually increase their health," says Paskett.
  As a breast cancer survivor__63__, Paskett knows first hand how much difference diet and exercise can__64__ The challenge, she says, is to get more survivors to be more like Beth, during and after treatment.
  Experts say exercising more and eating a healthier diet can also cut __65__ on2 stress and help women overcome depression. There are more than 2 million breast cancer survivors living in the U.S. Of those, nearly a million have yet to change their diet or exercise routines.
  51. A women   B people  C persons   D men
  52. A death   B ache   C cancer   D feeding
  53. A which   B that   C what    D those
  54. A far     B soon   C fast     D early
  55. A what   B so    C very    D how
  56. A not     B no   C neither   D nor
  57. A before   B after   C without   D since
  58. A place   B kind   C way    D much
  59. A their   B his    C her     D our
  60. A too   B do     C further   D also
  61. A Despite  B Although  C Accepting   D Regardless
  62. A who   B whose   C which    D what
  63. A myself  B itself   C herself    D yourself
  64. A take   B make   C offer     D decide
  65. A up   B off     C in      D down

  【参考答案】

  第一部分 AABBC BBADA AACCA

  第二部分 BBACC AB

  第三部分 DCBA EDCB

  第四部分 ADCCB DADBD BCDCA

  第五部分 FADCE

  第六部分 ACCAD ABCAD AACBD

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