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2010-01-15 16:32  来源:职业培训教育网     我要纠错 打印 收藏   



A Society Without a Formal Authority

  In the seventeenth century, European soldiers who came across some Indian groups in the western Great Lakes found that several native tribes (部落) were living in the area without a formal leadership system. They appeared to be "quite friendly with each other without a formal authority!"

  Not only did the Indians appear to lack a formal system of authority, but they also deeply hated any efforts to control their actions. All members of the tribes knew what was required of them by lifelong (一生的) familiarity with the tasks of the area. These tasks tended to be simple, since the Indians' rate of social change was slow. Thus, although subgroups such as soldiers had recognized leaders, no real authority was required. Rather than giving direct orders (which were considered rough), members of the tribes would arouse others to action by examples.

  It would be difficult, if not impossible, to carry out such a system in our own society. Most of us have grown up under one authority or another for as long as we can remember. Our parents, our teachers, our bosses, our government all have the recognized right under certain conditions to tell us what to do. The authority is so much a part of our culture that it is hard for us to imagine a workable society without it. We have been used to relying on authority to get things done and would probably be uncomfortable with the Indian methods of examples on a large scale.

  Of course, the major reason why the Indian system would not be suitable for us is that our society is too large. The number of tasks that various members of our society have to perform often under tight time and resource limitations could not be treated by the Indian system. In modern societies, the formal authority system is necessary to achieve any social objectives.

  1 Which of the following statements about the European soldiers is correct?

  A They had no leaders.

  B They treated the Indian groups well.

  C They came across some Indian groups.

  D They found the Indian groups friendly to them.

  2 Members of the tribes got others to do things

  A with resolution

  B by examples.

  C by force.

  D with effort.

  3 According to the author, it is hard for a society to work without

  A a recognized authority.

  B enough money.

  C examples.

  D changes.

  4 After reading the passage, you may conclude that

  A the Indian system is also suitable for some small towns.

  B the Indians tended to follow orders.

  C our system is much better than the Indians'.

  D the Indian system would be very difficult to implement in our society.

  5 It can be inferred from the passage that many tasks in our society have to be carried out

  A under severe weather conditions.

  B without any effort.

  C without any delay.

  D with ease.


Schooling and Education

  It is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.

  Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no limits. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or in a theatre. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a respected grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy (婴儿期) on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong (一生的) process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral (基本的) part of one's entire life.

  Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned (指定的) seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are words or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that they are ,not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.

  6 Which of the following is true according to the author?.

  A School is the place where people get informal education.

  B Education means schooling.

  C Education can be both formal and informal.

  D Going to school is the only way to receive education.

  7 Education is different from schooling in that

  A the former is predictable while the latter is not.

  B the former is specific while the latter is not.

  C the former is a formalized process while the latter is not.

  D the former is more open-ended and all-inclusive than the latter.

  8 When does education begin?

  A Before one enters school.

  B After one enters school.

  C After one graduates from college.

  D After one retires from work.

  9 The fact that children arrive at school at about the same time shows that

  A schooling imposes a lot of strain on the students.

  B schooling has a clear boundary.

  C schooling follows more or less the same pattern

  D schooling includes different aspects of learning.

  10 What is the author's attitude toward schooling?

  A Positive.

  B Negative.

  C Neutral (中立的).

  D Supportive.


Too Late to Regret It

  When I was a junior, I met a second-year student in my department. He wasn't tall or good-looking, but he was very nice, attractive and athletic. He had something that I admired very much. He was natural, warm, and sincere.

  I disregarded (不顾) my parents' disapproval. We were very happy together. He picked me up from my dorm every morning, and after class we would sit alongside the stream that ran through campus, or sunbathe (晒太阳) on the lawn. At night he would walk me back to my dorm. He came from a poor family, but in order to make me happy, he borrowed money from his friend to buy presents and meals for me. Our fellow students looked up to him as a role model, and the girls envied (妒忌) me. He wasn't a local, but wanted to stay here after graduation. I thought we had a future together.

  However, when I got a part-time job during the summer vacation, people began giving me a lot of pressure, saying that a pretty, intelligent girl like me should find a better guy to spend time with. This was also what my family thought. He spent the summer in his hometown, so I was all by myself. When he got back, I began finding fault with him. But his big heart and warmth soon drove all unpleasant thoughts away. However, I had no idea how badly I had hurt him and that things would get worse.

  I had a good part-time job off campus that paid pretty well. With my good performance at school, I also got admission to graduate school at one of China's best universities. He, on the other hand, did not do so well at school or at work. I had to worry about his living expenses, job and scores.

  Almost all my colleagues and friends advised me to break up with him. Then we had a quarrel last June. He was in great pain, and my cold words and bad moods started turning him away.

  Graduation time was drawing near, and he said he wanted to go back to his hometown. He said that he couldn't put up with me anymore. I was shocked and looked at him in despair.

  True love happens only once, but I found it out too late.

  11 When did the author fall in love with the boy?

  A After she had a quarrel with him.

  B When she was a junior.

  C When she was a second-year student.

  D After she found a part-time job.

  12 What did he do to make her happy?

  A He studied much harder.

  B He often took her for a ride.

  C He always endured her insults.

  D He often bought her presents and meals.

  13 Who advised her to break up with him?

  A His parents.

  B Her teachers.

  C Her colleagues and friends.

  D Their fellow students.

  14 Why did he leave her?

  A Because he could no longer bear her.

  B Because he hated her.

  C Because his parents needed taking care of.

  D Because he wasn't a local.

  15 Upon learning that he would leave her, she was

  A very happy.

  B extremely joyful.

  C quite relieved.

  D in great pain.


  1. C 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. C

  6. C 7. D 8. A 9. C 10. C

  11. B 12. D 13. C 14. A 15. D



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