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语法知识——介词

2008-11-19 09:15  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

  介词是一种结构词,不能单独担任句子成分。介词的作用是表示它后面的宾语同句中其它词语之间的关系。介词与它的宾语构成介词短语可以充当多种句子成分。如:

  The cost of food is rising. (定语)

  She was ill during the meeting. (状语)

  I found him in very good shape. (宾语补足语)

  通常介词可分为四类:

  简单介词:at, in, from, on;

  复合介词:upon, inside, outside;

  双重介词:from behind, from among;

  短语介词:in case of, according to.

  介词的意义

  1.表示时间的介词

  in表示“在某一时间段”,或“在……某一时候”,如用在月、季、年份、时代、世纪等时间名词的前面,或用来泛指一天的某一段时间。

  in July / summer / 2000 / ancient times / the 1999‘s

  in the morning / afternoon / evening

  in也可以指“在……之后”,表示从说话起的若干时间内,如:

  The bus will be here in ten minutes.

  on表示“在特定的某一天”,也可用于带有修饰语的一天的某个时间段之前。如:on Saturday, on Saturday morning, on the morning of August 1st

  at表示“在某一时间点”,或用来表示不确定的时间和短期的假日、时节等。如:

  at six o‘clock, at Easter

  介词over, through(out)两者均指“经过的全部时间”。

  Stay over the Christmas.

  介词for, since for表示动作或状态延续的全部时间长度,为“长达……”之意;since

  用于指从过去特定的某个时刻到说话时为止的一段时间;两者往往用于完成时。

  I have been there for six years.

  We have not seen each other since 1993.

  during指“在……时期/时间内”,必须以表示一段时间的词或词组作宾语。

  She was ill for a week, and during that week she ate little.

  2.表示地点的介词

  介词above, over, on, on top of.Above和below分别表示高于和低于的意思,不一定指

  垂直方向上的上下;over和under分别表示垂直方向上的上下和高低;on/on top of和

  beneath/underneath表示“和表面相接触”意义上的上下。以上三对介词互为反义词。

  The temple stands on top of the hill.

  The pen is beneath the book.

  There is a lamp over the desk.

  介词at指小地点或集会场合;on表示线或面上的位置;in表示在立体、区域或环境内,

  特别是那些较大,能够容纳相应事物的环境。

  He works at Peking University.

  Your radio is on the desk.

  The boat is in the lake.

  介词in, on, off, to表示相当于某个区域或某个物体的位置关系:in表示在区域的里面;on表示在区域的边界附近,可以是属于这个区域的一部分或相互接壤;off也表示在区域的

  边界附近,但一般不是属于这个区域的一部分;to表示在区域的边界更远些的附近,所以不是属于这个区域的一部分或不相互接壤。

  Japan is to the east of China and Mongolia is on the north.

  Taiwan is in the east of China but is off the mainland.

  介词between用来说明“在……两者之间”或“三个以上人物或事物中的两者之间的相互关系”;among用来说明“在……两者以上之间”的相互关系;amid(amidst)和among都可

  以用来表示没有确定数目的物体之间的相互关系,amid多用于正式文体。

  There is a small river between the two villages.

  The book is the best among these modern novels.

  介词about, (all) over, (all) through, throughout都可以表示“在……范围内到处”,“遍布”

  的意义。

  After meal I wandered alone about the town.

  介词in front of和behind指前、后的相对位置。

  She always looks in front of and behind the car before she starts it.

  介词round, pass指“绕过”;其中pass指“从……旁边经过”;through指“从……之中

  穿过“。

  The movie theater is round the corner.

  He lives in the village past the bus stop through the park.

  3.表示原因的介词

  for常常表示褒贬、奖惩的原因或心理原因。

  They will reward you for your help.

  due to常常用来引导形容词性的短语,作定语或表语。

  Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious consequences.

  from和out of常常表示动机或原因;through表示消极或间接的原因。

  He feels weak from lack of sleep.

  He broke down through overwork.

  4.表示目的的介词

  for表示拟定的接收人或目的;to表示实际的接收人或目的。

  I bought the gift for my little sister.

  I gave the gift to my little sister.

  for和to都可以引导目的地。For跟在含有出发或开始意义的动词后,如:leave, set out,

  start, depart, sail等;to跟在含有来来往往地行动的意义的动词后,如:go, come, run ,walk,

  move, fly, drive, ride等。

  We have left for Hong Kong.

  He flew to America via Hong Kong.

  at表示起因;on表示依据。

  She is quite pleased at his help.

  Ken was arrested on a charge of that.

  at还可引导行为的目标或精力的集中点。

  He shot at the bird.

  5.表示“关于……”的介词

  一般about用于比较随便的谈话或非正式的文体;on用于正式的讲话、著作或报告中;of用于动词talk, read, know, say, hear, boast等的后面。如:

  What are you talking about?

  A paper on serfdom in Russian

  In terms of natural resources

  6.表示原料的介词

  of和out of表示制成品的材料仍保持原材料的性质;with表示制成产品的一种成分;from表示制成品已失去了原材料的性质;in表示制成品的材料的色调或特殊性。

  His house was built of brick.

  She made these toys out of old cigar-boxes.

  A fruitcake is made with fruit.

  Steel is made from iron.

  We have furniture of this design in oak and in walnut.

  7.表示价格的介词

  at和for都可表示价格,at仅表示价格,for还表示“交换”,如:

  Eggs are sold at 95 cents a dozen here.

  I bought it for five pounds.

  8.表示其它意义的介词

  in spite of, despite, for(all…), with(all…)等表示让步意义的介词。其中:despite较为正式,

  in spite of较为普遍,for/with(all…)较为口语化。

  In spite of / despite the bad weather 尽管天气不好

  For / with all his shortcomings 尽管他有许多缺点

  Except和but表示不包含的意义,只是单纯地将其后面所接的人或事物排除在外,一般不用于句首,多跟在表示一个集体的名词或代词后作定语。

  He gets up early every day except Sunday.

  Who would do such a thing but Peter?

  Except for和apart from表示不包含的意义,所引导的短语,主要用于状语,以修饰全句,意为“除了有……之外”,“只是……”等,用于引出一个相反的细节或原因,因而部分

  地修正了全句的主要意思。

  Except for Jack, the whole class passed the test.

  Apart from its cost, the plan was a good one.

  Except for和but for表示不包含的意义,可以引导有否定意义的条件状语从句。

  Except for / But for the storm we should have arrived earlier.

  except 指从整体中除去一部分,而besides则表示“除……之外还有……”的意义。

  Nobody was late except me.

  He had few friends besides us.

  表示超过或不足的介词有:above, beyond, over, past; below, beneath, under等,如:

  beyond description 难以形容

  below / under the average 低于平均水平

  表示状态的介词有:at, off, in, under, out of等,如:

  on fire 着火

  off duty 下班

  out of fashion 过时

  表示支持的with, for和表示反对的against.

  I‘m with you in all you say.

  Are you for or against the plan?

  介词的搭配

  1.介词与动词的搭配

  同一介词可以与不同的动词搭配,表示不同的意思。以of为例:

  Jack reminds her grandma of her husband because he looks just like him. (使……想起)

  Have you ever heard of such a thing? (听说)

  She often spoke of her life in China. (谈起)

  The lady was robbed of 10 dollars on her way home. (抢劫)

  Thanks for thinking of me. (思念)

  同一动词可以与不同的介词搭配使用,表示不同的意思。以look为例:

  Look after the children. (照顾)

  He looked at the timetable. (看)

  What are you looking for? (寻找)

  The police are looking into the case. (调查)

  在许多动词 + 介词的结构中,介词实际上是动词的一部分,与动词一起构成短语动词。

  2.介词与形容词的搭配

  介词短语是形容词补语的一种,下面介绍几个常与形容词搭配的介词。

  at⑴ 表示对某种因素在情绪上的反应,如:I am angry at their not telling me. 这类形容词还有:amazed, pleased, hurt, disappointed, excited, delighted, worried等;⑵表示在某方面的能力,如: He‘s good at tennis. 这类形容词还有:adept, expert, show, hopeless, useless等。

  in表示方面,如:He is successful in everything he does.这类形容词还有:lacking, interested, efficient, lucky等。

  about表示对象,如:I am curious about her motives.这类形容词还有:certain, careful,

  careless, happy, pleased, sure, anxious等。

  to表示目标,如:Your arguments are contrary to reason.这类形容词还有:acceptable,

  answerable, equal, hateful, kind, natural, painful, peculiar, pleasant, polite, rude, similar, strange, used等。

  with 表示伴随,如:Your arguments are not consistent with your previous remarks.这类形容词还有:complete, content, angry ,busy, consistent, horrified, pleased, upset等。

  for⑴表示对象,如:We are eager for news.这类形容词还有:bound, adequate, famous, fit,

  necessary, sorry, ready等;⑵表示分离,如:She was absent from the meeting.这类形容词还有:

  free, different, separate, safe等。

  3.介词与名词的搭配

  介词与名词的搭配常常用在由动词、形容词等转换而来的名词的后面。如:

  We can‘t ignore their concern for the matter.

  His absence from school was caused by illness.

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