Smoking one or two cigars a day doubles the risk of cancers of the lip, tongue, mouth, and throat, according to a government study.
Daily cigars also increase the risk of lung cancer and cancer of the esophagus, and increase the risk of cancer of the larynx （voice-box） six-fold, say researchers at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland.
In addition, the report revealed that smoking three or four cigars a day increased the risk of oral cancer to 8. 5 times the risk for nonsmokers and the risk of esophageal cancer by four times the risk of nonsmokers.
The health effects of smoking cigars is one of eight sections of the article “Cigars: Health Effects and Trends.” The researchers report that, compared with a cigarette, a large cigar emits up to 90 times as much carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines.
“This article provides clear and invaluable information about the disturbing increase in cigar use and the significant public health consequences for the country,” said Dr. Richard Klausner, director of the National Cancer Institute, in a statement.
“The data are clear—the harmful substances and carcinogens in cigar smoke, like cigarettes, are associated with the increased risks of several kinds of cancers as well as heart and lung diseases,” he added. “In other words, cigars are not safe alternatives to cigarettes and may be addictive.”
“To those individuals who may be thinking about smoking cigars, our advice is—don't. To those currently smoking cigars, quitting is the only way to eliminate completely the cancer, heart and lung disease risks,” warned Klausner.
According to National Cancer Institute press release, there haven't been any studies on the health effects on nonsmokers at cigar social events , but “. . . a significant body of evidence clearly demonstrates and increased lung cancer risk from secondhand smoke.”
1. According to the report, smoking three or four cigars a day
A. increases the risk of oral cancer for non-smokers.
B. greatly increases the risk of oral cancer for smokers.
C. increases the risk of more than one cancer for non-smokers.
D. greatly increases the risk of more than one cancer for smokers.
2. In the passage how many cancers are mentioned in relation to smoking cigars daily?
A. Six. B. Seven. C. Eight. D. Nine.
3. What is the main idea of the article “Cigars: Health Effects and Trends” ?
A. When it comes to cancer, cigars are not any safer than cigarettes.
B. Cigars may be addictive while cigarettes are not easily so.
C. Cigars contain less harmful substances than cigarettes.
D. Increase in cigar-smoking does not affect public health much.
4. What is the doctors' advice to those cigar-smokers?
A. To give it up completely
B. To give up part of it.
C. Not to think about it any more.
D. To cure the diseases first.
5. In the context of this passage, “secondhand smoke” may mean
A. smoking bad-quality cigars.
B. smoking very cheap cigars.
C. being near cigar smokers when they are not smoking.
D. being near cigar smokers when they are smoking.
Insomnia or sleeplessness is a common complaint of women as they enter into menopause. Insomnia means having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep or the feeling that your sleep was not adequate for you. For women who are having night sweats, their sleep is broken by frequent awakening and therefore not refreshing. Generally once the night sweats are controlled a normal sleep pattern returns. If it doesn't it may be, or have become chronic insomnia. How do you know?If you suffer from insomnia every night or most nights for a period of one month then you have chronic insomnia. If you're not having night sweats then it's time to look for other causes of sleeplessness. Depression and anxiety disorders are the most common causes of chronic insomnia. If you feel depressed you need to be checked by a qualified health care provider. Movement disorders such as restless leg syndrome are second on the list of insomnia for them, there are new medicines that may help. Other common causes are shift working, and pain.
In up to 30% of people with chronic insomnia no cause can be identified. Medical treatment of these people has generally been with sleeping pills. It is estimated that 25% of the adult population in America took some type of medicines for sleep last year. It is generally agreed that sleeping pills should only be in the lowest dose and for the shortest possible time.
Sleep hygiene is directed at changing bad sleep habits. The recommendations are: —Go to bed only when sleepy. —Do not wait up to a specialized time. —Avoid caffeine and alcohol in the evening, etc.
1. The word “insomnia” means
A. having trouble falling asleep.
B. feeling that sleep is enough.
C. having no sweats at night.
D. having normal sleep pattern.
2. How many possible causes of sleeplessness are mentioned in the second paragraph?
A. Five. B. Six. C. Seven. D. Numerous.
3. The expression “Second on the list” in the second paragraph means
A. the second least important cause of all kinds of sleeplessness.
B. the second most important cause of sleeplessness.
C. the second on the doctor's list about sleepless people.
D. the second on the writer's list recording sleeplessness.
4. Concerning the use of sleeping pills, which of the following statements is true?
A. Most adult Americans use sleeping pills for sleep.
B. Doctors seldom give sleepless people sleeping pills.
C. Sleeping pills should be used for a very fixed period.
D. Sleeping pills should be used in a very small amount.
5. Which of the following does not fit with sleep hygiene?
A. Make a rule to go to bed at a specific time every day.
B. Go to bed when sleepy, not always at the same time.
C. Try not to drink any caffeine and alcohol in the evening.
D. Change bad sleep habits and follow doctors' advice.
Attitudes to AIDS Now
Most people say that the USA is making progress in fighting AIDS, but they don't know there's no cure and strongly disagree that “the AIDS epidemic is over,” a new survey finds.
The findings, released Thursday by the Kaiser Family Foundation, reassure activists who have worried that public concern about AIDS might disappear in light of recent news about advances in treatment and declines in deaths.
“While people are very optimistic about the advances, they're still realistic about the fact that there is no cure” , says Sophia Chang, director of HIV programs at the foundation.
The Kaiser survey, like a recent USA TODAY Gallup Poll, does find that the number of people ranking AIDS as the country's top health problem has fallen. In the Kaiser poll, 38% say it's the top concern, down from 44% in a 1996 poll, in the Gallup poll, 29% say AIDS is No. 1, down from 41% in 1992 and 67% in 1987.
Other findings from Kaiser, which polled more than 1, 200 adults in September and October and asked additional questions of another 1, 000 adults in November：
52% say the country is making progress against AIDS, up from 32% in 1995.
51% say the government spends too little on AIDS.
86% correctly say AIDS drugs can now lengthen lives; an equal number correctly say that the drugs are not cures.
67% incorrectly say that AIDS deaths increased or stayed the same in the past year, 24% know deaths fell.
Daniel Zingale, director of AIDS Action Council, says，“I'm encouraged that the American people are getting the message that the AIDS epidemic isn't over. I hope the decision-makers in Washington are getting the same message. . . We have seen signs of complacency.”
1. What do activists worry about?
A. Recent news about AIDS is not true.
B. People may stop worrying about AIDS.
C. Deaths caused by AIDS may not decline.
D. Advances in AIDS treatment are too slow.
2. According to the passage, people's attitude toward the cure of AIDS is
3. The Gallup Poll shows that the number of people
A. who suffer from the worst disease—AIDS has fallen.
B. who think AIDS threatens the countryside has fallen.
C. who worry about AIDS and health problems has fallen.
D. who think AIDS is the country's top health killer has fallen.
4. According to the Kaiser Poll, which of the following is NOT correct?
A. The country is making progress against AIDS.
B. AIDS drugs still cannot save people's lives.
C. AIDS drugs can now make people live longer.
D. More and more people die of AIDS now.
5. The word “message” in the last paragraph means
A. printed news.
D. central idea.