3.全卷65题，连续编号，共100分。请按题号在答题卡上将所选 选 项对应的字母用2B铅笔涂黑。
1 She was a puzzle
2 Her speciality is heart surgery.
3 France has kept intimate links with its former African territories.
4 You should have blended the butter with the sugar thoroughly
5 The industrial revolution modified the whole structure of English society，
6 Tickets are limited and will be allocated to those who apply first.
7 The change in that village was miraculous.
8 Customers often defer payment for as long as possible
9 Canada will prohibit smoking in all offices later this year.
10 She read a poem which depicts the splendor of the sunset.
11 From my standpoint， this thing is just ridiculous
B.point of view
12 The latest census is encouraging
13 The curious looks from the strangers around her made her feel uneasy
14 Reading the job ad， he wondered whether he was eligible， to apply for it
15 He was elevated to the post of prime minister.
Monarch without a Kingdom
This November， a hundred million butterflies will drop from the sky over Mexico， like autumn leaves. But for how long？ Genetically modified maize （玉米） could mean extinction for this beautiful butterfly， Rafael Ruiz reports.
Although its body is about 3 cm long and it only weighs 1 gin， the Monarch butterfly manages to travel 5，000 km each year. It seems to be so fragile， but its long journeys are proof of its amazing ability to survive. This autumn， the Monarch butterfly will once more set out on its journey from the US. It will keep going until it reaches Mexico. It travels these huge distances to escape the cold weather in the north.
In November， millions of Monarchs fall like bright， golden rain onto the forests in the mountains of central Mexico. In the silence of these mountains you can hear a strange flapping （拍动） of wings， as the Monarchs arrive at their destination. In the mountains， which reach a height of 3，000 metres， the butterflies are safe.
Before reaching their journey’s end they have faced strong winds， rain and snowstorms and they do not all manage to reach their destination. When the winters are really bad， perhaps 70 per cent of them will not survive. Their long journey to Mexico is thought to be one of the most amazing events in the whole of the American continent. When they get there they will stay until the beginning of April， when their internal calendar tells them that it is time to go back. The long journey， with all its dangers， begins again.
These delicate creatures now face danger of another kind - from scientific progress. In the US， millions of farms grow genetically modified maize which is pure poison for the butterfly. Laboratory experiments have shown that half of the butterflies which feed on the leaves of genetically modified maize die within 48 hours. Not all experts agree that this variety of maize is responsible for the threat to the Monarchs. In spite of these doubts， the European Union has refused to approve new crops of genetically modified maize until further investigations have been carried out.
Greenpeace is campaigning against genetically modified products （in Spain， there are already 20，000 hectares of modified maize）。 The environmental organization recently published a list of 100 species of butterfly in Europe alone which are threatened with extinction.
16 The Monarch butterfly travels 5，000 km each year.
17 The Monarch butterfly looks fragile.
18 The Mexicans like butterflies very much.
19 in bad winters， about 70 per cent of the butterflies can stay alive
20 In early April， the butterflies leave their winter homes flying back north
21 Genetically modified maize isn’t poisonous to the butterflies.
22 Genetically modified products are not popular in Mexico
The Science of Sport
1 At the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens， the Chinese athlete Liu Xiang equaled the world record for the 110 metres hurdles （跨栏） when he ran the race in 12.91 seconds.
This record time had been set in 1993 by British sprinter （短跑运动员） Colin Jackson and 9 years went by before another athlete was able to run as fast.
2 Record-breaking in all track events is Slowing clown and we appear to be moving much closer to the limits of human performance. Nevertheless， every four years， records which were previously thought to be unbeatable are broken. So what’s behind this never-ending improvement in performance？ And how long can we keep breaking records？ Is there a limit to human performance or will athletes continue to gain seconds？
3 Most experts agree that it isn’t the athletes’ bodies which have changed but the huge advances in sport science which have enabled them to improve their performances. The individual athlete obviously has to have the necessary skill and determination to succeed， but the help of science and technology can be significant. Research has brought a better understanding of the athlete’s body and mind but the advances in sports equipment technology have also had an important impact on human performance.
4 Scientists have shown that an athlete’s body’s needs vary according to the type of sport. This research has helped top sports people to adapt their training programme and diet better to their particular needs. Running the marathon and cycling， for example， are endurance （耐力） sports and require a different parathion （硝苯硫磷脂） to that of a 100-metre sprinter. In some sports， changes in techniques have significantly improved performance.
5 But in any sport， a player’s success or failure results from a combination of both physical and mental abilities. Most coaches use psychological techniques to help their athletes cope with stress and concentrate on their performance~ For example， the English football team listens to music in the changing rooms before a game to help the players relax and not feel so nervous. Before a difficult match， tennis players are encouraged to use visualization （想象） techniques to build confidence and this is almost as good as practice.
6 But as science begins to dominate sport， are we in danger of losing sight of the heart of the competition， the sporting challenge？ What’s more， are all these advantages fair？
23 Paragraph 2 .
24 Paragraph 3 .
25 Paragraph 4 .
26 Paragraph 5 .
A.Different sports require different training programs.
B.Science may be too important today.
C.Sports equipment has been improved a lot.
D.Athletes are still breaking records.
E.Sport science helps improve athletes’ performances.
F.Mental training is as important as physical training.
27 It is more difficult for today’s athletes
28 We don’t know if there is a limit
29 Research has helped coaches
30 Scientific advances are suspected
A.to avoid psychological techniques
B.to break records
C.to better understand the athlete’s body and mind
D.to time and space
E.to be replacing the sporting challenge
F.to human performance
Is the Tie a Necessity？
Ties， or neckties， have been a symbol of politeness and elegance in Britain for centuries. But the casual Prime Minister Tony Blair has problems with them. Reports suggest that even the civil servants may stop wearing ties. So， are the famously formal British really going to abandon the neckties？
Maybe. Last week， the UK’s Cabinet Secretary Andrew Turnbull openly welcomed a tieless era. He hinted that civil servants would soon be tree of the costliest 12 inches of fabric that most men ever buy in their lives.
In fact， Blair showed this attitude when he had his first guests to a cocktail party. Many of them were celebrities （知名人士） without ties， which would have been unimaginable even in the recent past.
For some more conservative British， the tie is a must for proper appearance. Earlier， Labor leader Jim Callaghan said he would have died rather than have his children seen in public without a tie. For people like Callaghan， the tile was a sign of being complete， of showing respect. Men were supposed to wear a tie when going to church， to work in the office， to a party - almost every social occasion.
But today， people have begun to accept a casual style even for formal occasions.
The origin of the tie is tricky. It started as something called simply a “band”。 The term could mean anything around a man’s neck. It appeared in finer ways in the 1630s. Frenchmen showed a love of this particular fashion statement. Their neckwear （颈饰）impressed Charles II， the king of England who was exiled（流放）to France at that time. When he returned to England in 1660， he brought this new fashion item along with him.
It wasn’t， however， until the late 18th century that fancy young men introduced a more colorful， flowing piece of cloth that eventually became known as the tie. Then， clubs military institutions and schools began to use colored and patterned ties to indicate the wearer’s membership in the late 19th century. After that， the tie became a necessary item of clothing for British gentlemen.
But now， even gentlemen are getting tired of ties. Anyway， the day feels a bit easier when you wake up without having to decide which tie suits you and your mood.
31 The tie symbolizes all of the following except
32 Why does Blair sometimes show up in a formal event without a tie？
A.Because he wants to make a show
B.Because he wants to attract attention.
C.Because ties are costly.
D.Because he wants to live in a casual way.
33 Which of the following is NOT a social occasion？
A.Going to church.
B.Going to work in the office.
C.Staying at home.
D.Going to a party.
34 Who brought the Frenchmen’s neckwear to Britain？
35 When did British gentlemen begin to wear ties regularly？
A.After the late 19th century.
B.In the 1630s.
D.In the late 18th century.
Where Have All the Frogs Gone？
In the 1980s， scientists around the world began to notice something strange： Frogs were disappearing. More recent research has shown that many kinds of amphibians （两栖动物） are declining or have become extinct. They have been around for a long time - over 350 million years. Why are they dying out now？
Scientists are seriously concerned about this question. First of all， amphibians are an important source of scientific and medical knowledge. By studying amphibians， scientists have learned about new substances that could be very useful for treating human diseases. Further research could lead to many more discoveries， but that will be impossible if the amphibians disappear.
The most serious aspect of amphibian loss， however， goes beyond the amphibians themselves. Scientists are beginning to think about what amphibian decline means for the planet as a whole. If the earth is becoming unlivable for amphibians， is it also becoming unlivable for other kinds of animals and human beings as well？
Scientists now believe that amphibian decline is due to several environmental factors. One of these factors is the destruction of habitat， the natural area where an animal lives. Amphibians are very sensitive to changes in their habitat. If they cannot find the right conditions， they will not lay their eggs. These days， as wild areas are covered with houses， roads， farms， or factories， many kinds of amphibians are no longer laying eggs. For example， the arroyo toad （蟾蜍） of southern California will only lay its eggs on the sandy bottom of a slow-moving stream. There are very few streams left in southern California， and those streams are often muddy because of building projects. Not surprisingly， the arroyo toad is now in danger of extinction.
There are a number of other factors in amphibian decline. Pollution is one of them. In many industrial areas， air pollution has poisoned the rain， which then falls on ponds and kills the frogs and toads that live there. In farming areas， the heavy use of chemicals on crops has also killed off amphibians. Another factor is that air pollution has led to increased levels of ultraviolet （UV） light. This endangers amphibians， which seem to be especially sensitive to UV light. And finally， scientists have discovered a new disease that seems to be killing many species of amphibians in different parts of the world.
All these reasons for the disappearance of amphibians are also good reasons for more general concern. The destruction of land， the pollution of the air and the water， the changes in our atmosphere， the spread of diseases - these factors affect human beings， too. Amphibians are especially sensitive to environmental change. Perhaps they are like the canary （金丝雀） bird that coal miners once used to take down into the mines to detect poisonous gases. When the canary became ill or died， the miners knew that dangerous gases were near and their own lives were in danger.
36 Losing amphibians means losing
A.knowledge about fatal human diseases.
B.knowledge about air and water pollution.
C.a chance to discover new medicines.
D.an opportunity to detect poisonous gases.
37 Amphibians lay their eggs
A.in any stream they can find，
B.in places without UV light，
C.only on sand.
D.only in the right conditions
38 The arroyo toad is disappearing because
A.it has been threatened by frogs.
B.it is losing its habitat.
C.a disease has been killing its eggs.
D.it can’t bear the cold of winter.
39 Coal miners once used the canary bird to detect
40 Scientists think that the decline of amphibians could
A.cause environmental change.
B.cause a decline in other kinds of animals.
C.be a warning signal for human beings.
D.be a good sign for human beings.
Controlling Robots with the Mind
Belle， our tiny monkey， was seated in her special chair inside a chamber at our Duke University lab. Her right hand grasped a joystick （操纵杆） as she watched a horizontal series of lights on a display panel. She knew that if a light suddenly shone and she moved the joystick left or right to correspond to its position， she would be sent a drop of fruit juice into her mouth.
Belle wore a cap glued to her head. Under it were four plastic connectors， which fed arrays of microwires-each wire finer than the finest sewing thread- into different regions of Belle’s motor cortex （脑皮层）， tile brain tissue that plans movements and sends instructions. Each of the 100 microwires lay beside a single motor neuron （神经元）。 When a neuron produced an electrical discharge， the adjacent microwire would capture the current and send it up through a small wiring bundle that ran from Belle’s cap to a box of electronics on a table next to the booth. The box， in turn， was linked to two computers， one next door and the other half a country away.
After months of hard work， we were about to test the idea that we could reliably
translate the raw electrical activity in a living being’s brain-Belle’s mere thoughts-into signals that could direct the actions of a robot. We had assembled a multijointed robot arm in this room， away from Belle’s view， which she would control for the first time. As soon as Belle’s brain sensed a lit spot on the panel， electronics in the box running two real-time mathematical models would rapidly analyze the tiny action potentials produced by her brain cells. Our lab computer would convert the electrical patterns into instructions that would direct the robot arm. Six hundred miles north， in Cambridge， Mass， a different computer would produce the same actions in another robot arm built by Mandayam A. Srinivasan. If we had done everything correctly， the two robot arms would behave as Belle’s arm did， at exactly the same time.
Finally the moment came. We randomly switched on lights in front of Belle， and she immediately moved her joystick back and forth to correspond to them. Our robot arm moved similarly to Belle’s real arm. So did Sriniwlsan’s. Belle and the robots moved in synchrony （同步）， like dancers choreographed （设计舞蹈动作） by the electrical impulses sparking in Belle’s mind.
In the two years since that day， our labs and several others have advanced neuroscience， computer science and microelectronics to create ways for rats， monkeys and eventually humans to control mechanical and electronic machines purely by “thinking through，” or imagining， the motions. Our immediate goal is to help a person who has been unable to move by a neurological （神经的） disorder or spinal cord （脊髓） injury， but whose motor codex is spared， to operate a wheelchair or a robotic limb.
41 Belle would be fed some fruit juice if she
A.grasped the joystick.
B.moved the joystick to the side of the light.
C.sat quietly in a special chair.
D.watched lights on a display panel.
42 The wires fixed under Belle’s cap were connected to
A.a plastic box next door.
B.a computer at Cambridge University，
C.a box of electronics in the booth.
D.a box which， in turn， was linked to two computers
43 Which of the following is NOT true of the robot built by Srinivasan？
A.It was directed by signals converted from the electrical activity in Belle’s brain
B.It converted the electrical patterns into instructions for the other robot.
C.It was six hundred miles away from where Belle was.
D.It could perform the same function as Belle did.
44 Which of the following statements indicates the success of the experiment？
A.Belle responded to the robots successfully.
B.Belle and the robots danced beautifully.
C.Belle and the robots responded to the lights at the same time.
D.The two robots moved the joysticks successively.
45 The short-term goal of the research is to help a person
A.whose motor cortex is seriously damaged.
B.who can operate a wheelchair but not a robotic limb.
C.who has spinal cord injury but is able to move a wheelchair.
D.who is unable to move but whose motor cortex is not damaged
How Did She Conquer the Americans？
African-American talk show queen Oprah Winfrey is the world’s most powerful celebrity， according to Forbes magazine. （46）
Winfrey， 51， draws 30 million viewers weekly in the United States. Her talk show reaches 112 countries. She earned US$225 million over the past 12 months to rank second in celebrity riches.
The annual Forbes list gives most weight to annual earnings. （47）
“After 21 years， her exciting chat show still rules the airwaves. It created new celebrities and hundreds of millions of dollars in profits，” the magazine said.
Winfrey is most popular with her popular talk show “The Oprah Winfrey Show”。 She can always attract the superstars and let them open up to her intimate interviewing style.
Last month， American actor Tom Cruise， 42， surprised fans when he celebrated his new romance with 26-year-old actress Katie Holmes. He jumped up and down， shouting “I’m in love.” Only a few years ago， Cruise and his ex-wife Nicole Kidman appeared separately on the same show telling the news of their divorce （48）
Winfrey’s approach appears to be simple. She is in pursuit of self-improvement and self-empowerment （自强）。 This has proved to be just what people， especially women， want.
Winfrey often talks about her personal secrets on her show. That pulls in viewers. For example， she revealed that she had been sexually abused as a child， and has spoken freely of her struggle with her weight.
Winfrey was born to a poor family in Mississippi in 1954 （49） At the age of 19， she became the youngest person and the first African*American woman to anchor （主持） a news programme.
Her success has not just been on the screen. Her media group includes a women’s TV network and websites for women.y
Winfrey’s work has extended to social change. （50）
She testified before the US Senate to establish a national database of dangerous child abusers. President Bill Clinton later signed “Oprah Bill” into law.
A.But it also looks at the celebrity’s presence on the Internet and in the media
B.In 1991， she did a lot of work for the National Child Protection Act.
C.She was not a very successful woman
D.She began broadcasting while still at high school
E.It placed Winfrey at the top of its annual ranking of the 100 people last week.
F.The couple had been tight-lipped about their break-up.
At the end of October 2003， a sudden solar storm hit the earth. A.solar storm refers to the large amounts of charged particles released into space （51）the solar energy increases. The release of the energy （52） place along with the activity of the sunspots with a cycle of： 11 years. This time， the （53） of the storm exceeded expectations.
This （54） of intense solar storm was caused by the eruption of a solar flare （闪光） and the ejection （喷发） of the solar corona （日冠） on October 28， 2003. Large amounts of charged particles moved 150，000，000 kilometers through space toward the （55） in 19 hours. They could affect aircraft roaming （漫游） in space.
The high-energy particles will （56） some of the parts of an aircraft. They may also cause it to fail. High-energy particles can threaten the safety of an aircraft at a high orbit. If an aircraft orbits at a lower orbit， it is （57）because it is under the protection of the earth’s magnetic field.
A.solar storm not only affects aircraft but also is a （58） to the environment and humans. The aerosphere and magnetic field of the earth can （59） humans from ultraviolet radiation and X-rays. While most of the X-rays
are absorbed after they enter the aerosphere （大气层）， still a few can （60） the ground.
The geomagnetic storm caused by this round of solar storm reaches its highest level on the two （61） of the earth， which affects electricity supply of North America. Overexposure to （62） threatens the health of passengers on planes flying over the Polar Regions. If we fly in the sky during such a solar storm， it （63） we receive ten times the X-ray radiation. It’s really damaging.
Scientists say a solar eruption is like the sun sneezing， which will make the earth （64） a cold. Though this natural force is irresistible， scientists can still （65） its movement accurately by monitoring. Facing successive solar storms， humans can’t drop their guard
51 A.since B.when C.until D.though
52 A.finds B.adjusts C.holds D.takes
53 A.intensity B.height C.width D.density
54 A.piece B.part C.round D.set
55 A.star B.earth C.moon D.sun
56 A.dominate B.develop C.damage D.descend
57 A.safe B.dangerous C.comfortable D.manageable
58 A.limit B.cause C.force D.threat
59 A.separate B.benefit C.distinguish D.protect
60 A.lose B.reach C.break D.prepare
61 A.poles B.mountains C.rivers D.lakes
62 A.light B.storm C.radiation D.pressure
63 A.recommends B.means C.proposes D.advises
64 A.turn B.stop C.become D.catch
65 A.detect B.start C.experience D.change