1. The government is debating the education laws.
A) discussing B) defeating C) delaying D) declining
2. They had a far better yield than any other farm miles away around this year.
A) goods B) soil
C) climate D) harvest
3. The city has decided to do away with all the old buildings in its center.
A) get rid of B) set up
C) repair D) paint
4. During the past ten years there have been dramatic changes in the international situation.
A) permanent B) powerful
C) striking D) practical
5. Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.
A) slight B) surprising C) sudden D) harmful
6. Cement was seldom used in building the Middle Ages.
A) crudely B) rarely C) originally D)occasionally
7. There is an abundant supply of cheap labor in this country.
A) a steady B) a plentiful C) an extra D) a stable
8. The most crucial problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.
A)puzzling B) difficult C) terrifying D) urgent
9. He made an immense amount of money in business.
A)large B) small C) limited D) little
10. The substance can be added to gasoline to accelerate the speed of automobiles.
A) quicken B)shorten C) loosen D) enlarge
11. The room was furnished with the simplest essentials, a bed, a chair, and a table
A)supplied B) gathered
12. The local government decided to merge the two firms into a big one.
A)motivate B) combine
13. He emphasized a feasible plan which can be accepted by the both sides.
A)favorable B) possible
14. When does the next train depart?
A)pull up B) pull down
C)pull out D)pull in
15. Because administering the whole company, he sometimes has to work around the clock.
A)adjusting B) evaluating
Irradiating fruits, vegetables, pork and chicken to kill insects and bacteria has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration over the past decade or so. Irradiation of other meats, such as beef and lamb, is being reviewed. Federal approval does not require that industry adopt the process, and few food processors presently offer irradiated products.
Market studies have shown that many consumers are afraid that eating irradiated foods may cause cancer, despite scientific studies that prove the safety of treated foods. Some people argue that more severe government inspection, higher food-safety standards, and more careful-preparation practices by consumers are all that is needed to ensure that food is safe. Consequently, companies currently see no need to spend millions of dollars outfitting processing plants with the equipment necessary for a process that very few shoppers are in favor of.
All supermarkets that sell irradiated food must label the food either directly on the packaging, or, in the case of bulk items like fruits and vegetables, by placing a sign nearby. There is no requirement for the labeling of irradiated food served by chain restaurants or hospitals that buy directly from distributors, nor any regulations for products that contain irradiated ingredients.
Presently, the FDA allows food to be treated with three types of radiation -- gamma rays, high-energy electrons, and X rays -- and sets limits on doses, depending on the type of food. The principle is that the dose to be used for a certain type of food should not exceed the amount that is sufficient to kill most harmful insects and bacteria present in it. Different types of food, because of their molecular compositions, may require different doses of radiation.
1. According to the passage, killing insects and bacteria present in foods by irradiating is not completely approved by the US government.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
2. There are quite a number of food processors which are interested in producing irritated foods.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
3. Some consumers are doubtful of the safety of irradiated foods and suggest a more severe government inspection be taken.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
4. Some companies foresee the promising future of setting up food processing factories, although they do not see the need now.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
5. It is required that labels placed on irradiated food or nearby bulk items such as vegetables and fruits should indicate irradiated ingredients.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
6. Restaurants can serve irradiated food bought directly from distributors without labeling it.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
7. The passage tells us that FDA approves irradiating food to some extent but irradiated food is not widely accepted.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：（1）1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题；（2）第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
The Mir Space Station
The Russian Mir Space Station, which came down in 2001 at last after 15 years of pioneering the concept of long-term human space flight, is remembered for its accomplishments in the human space flight history. It can be credited with many firsts in space.
During Mir's lifetime, Russia spent about US$4.2 billion to build and maintain the station.
The Soviet Union launched Mir, which was designed to last from three to five years, on February 20, 1986, and housed 104 astronauts over 12 years and seven months, most of whom were not Russian. In fact, it became the first international space station by playing host to 62 people from 11 countries. From 1995 through 1998, seven astronauts from the United States took turns living on Mir for up to six months each. They were among the 37 Americans who visited the station during nine stopovers by space shuttles.
The more than 400 million the United States provided Russian for the visits not only kept Mir operating, but also gave the Americans and their partners in the international station project valuable experience in long-term flight and multinational operations.
A debate continues over Mir's contributions to science. During its existence, Mir was the laboratory for 23,000 experiments and carried scientific equipment, estimated to be worth $80 million, from many nations. Experiments on Mir are credited with a range of findings, from the first solid measurement of the ration of heavy helium atoms in space to how to grow wheat in space. But for those favoring human space exploration, Mir showed that people could live and work in space long enough for a trip to Mars. The longest single stay in space is the 437.7 days that Russian astronaut Valery Polyakov spent on Mir from 1994 to 1995. And Sergie Avdeyev accumulated 747.6 days in space in three trips to the space station. The longest American stay was that of Shannon Lucid, who spent 188 days aboard Mir in 1996.
Despite the many firsts Mir accomplished, 1997 was a bad year out of 15 for Mir. In 1997, an oxygen generator caught fire. Later, the main computer system broke down, causing the station to drift several times and there were power failures.
Most of these problems were repaired, with American help and suppliers, but Mir's reputation as a space station was ruined.
Mir's setbacks are nothing, though, when we compare them with its accomplishments. Mir was a tremendous success, which will be remembered as a milestone in space exploration and the space station that showed long-term human habitation in space was possible. But it's time to move on to the next generation. The International Space Station being built will be better, but it owes a great debt to Mir.
1. Paragraph 4________
2. Paragraph 5________
3. Paragraph 6________
4. Paragraph 8________
A Rewards following the U.S. financial injection
B Mir's firsts in scientific experiments and space exploration
C Undeniable Mir's achievements
D Mir regarded as a complete failure
E Mir's problem year
F A great debt owned to the International Space Station
5. Mir enhanced the confidence in the scientists that humans living in space for a long time was________
6. In Mir, the U.S. astronauts created ________
7. When we think of Mir in terms of its achievements, its setbacks are ________
8. The writer tends to think that Mir was________
C a tremendous failure.
D quite possible.
E many firsts.
F a great success.
The Gene Industry
Major companies are already in pursuit of commercial applications of the new biology. They dream of placing enzymes in the automobile to monitor exhaust and send data on pollution to a microprocessor that will then adjust the engine. They speak of what the New York Times calls "metal-hungry microbes that might be used to mine valuable trace metals from ocean water". They have already demanded and won the right to patent new life forms.
Nervous critics, including many scientists, worry that there is corporate, national, international, and inter-scientific rivalry in the entire biotechnological field. They create images not of oil spills, but of "microbe spills" that could spread disease and destroy entire populations. The creation and accidental release of extremely poisonous microbes, however, is only one cause for alarm. Completely rational and respectable scientists are talking about possibilities that stagger the imagination.
Should we breed people with cow-like stomachs so they can digest grass and hay, thereby relieving the food problem by modifying us to eat lower down on the food chain? Should we biologically alter workers to fit the job requirement, for example, creating pilots with faster reaction times or assembly-line workers designed to do our monotonous work for us? Should we attempt to eliminate " inferior " people and breed a " super -race "? (Hitler tried this, but without the genetic weaponry that may soon issue from our laboratories.) Should we produce soldiers to do our fighting? Should we use genetic forecasting to pre-eliminate " unfit " babies? Should we grow reserve organs for ourselves, each of us having, as it were, a " savings bank " full of spare kidney, livers or hands?
Wild as these notions may sound, every one has its advocates (and opposers) in the scientific community as well as its striking commercial application. As two critics of genetic engineering, Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard, state in their book Who Should Play God? " Broad Scale genetic engineering will probably be introduced to America much the same way as assembly lines, automobiles, vaccines, computers and all the other technologies. As each new genetic advance becomes commercially practical, a new consumer need will be exploited and a market for the new technology will be created."
1. According to the passage, the exhaust from a car engine could probably be checked by________
A) using metal-hungry microbes.
B) making use of enzymes.
C) adjusting the engine.
D) patenting new life forms.
2. According to the passage, which of the following would worry the critics the most?
A) The unanticipated explosion of population
B) The creation of biological solar cells.
C) The accidental spill of oil.
D) The unexpected release of destructive microbes.
3. Which of the following notions is NOT mentioned?
A) Developing a " savings bank " of one's organs.
B) Breeding soldiers for a war.
C) Producing people with cow-like stomachs.
D) Using genetic forecasting to cure diseases.
4. According to the passage, Hitler attempted to___
A) changed the pilots biologically to win the war.
B) develop genetic farming for food supply.
C) kill the people he thought of as inferior.
D) encourage the development of genetic weapons for the war.
5. What dose Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard's statement imply?
A) The commercial applications of genetic engineering are inevitable.
B) American will depend on other countries for biological progress.
C) Americans are proud of their countries for biological progress.
D) The potential application of each new genetic advance should be controlled.
Ford Abandons Electric Vehicles
The Ford motor company's abandonment of electric cars effectively signals the end of the road for the technology, analysts say.
General Motors and Honda'ceased production of battery powered cars in 1999, to focus on fuel cell and hybrid electric gasoline engines, which are more attractive to the consumer. Ford has now announced it will do the same.
Three years ago, the company introduced the Think City two-seater car and a golf cart called the THINK, or Think Neighbor. It hoped to sell 5,000 cars each year and 10,000 carts. But a lack of demand means only about l,000 of the cars have been produced, and less than 1 700 carts have been sold so far in 2002.
"The bottom line is we don't believe that this is the future of environment transport for the mass market." Tim Holmes of Ford Europe said on Friday. "We feel we have given electric our best shot."
The Think City has a range of only about 53 miles and up to a six-hour battery recharge time. General Motors' EVI electric vehicle also had a limited range of about 100 miles.
The very expensive batteries also mean electric cars cost much more than petrol-powered alternatives. An electric Toyot~RAV4 EV vehicle costs over$42,000 in the US, compared with just $17,000 for the petrol version. Toyota and Nissan…are now the only major auto-manufacturers to produce electric vehicles.
"There is a feeling that battery electric has been given its chance. Ford now has to move on with its hybrid program and that is what we will be judging them on," Roger Higman, a senior transport campaigner at UK Friends of the Earth, told the Environment News Service.
Hybrid cars introduced by Toyota and Honda in the past few years have sold well. Hybrid engines Offer Greater mileage than petrol-only engines, and the batteries recharge themselves. Ford says it thinks such vehicles will help it meet planned new guidelines "on vehicle emissions" in the U.S.
However, it is not yet clear exactly what those guidelines will permit. In June, General Motors and Daimler Chrysler won a court injunction, delaying by two years Californian legislation requiring car-makers to offer 100, 000 zero-emission and other low-emission vehicles in the state by 2003. Car manufacturers hope the legislation will be rewritten to allow for more low-emission, rather than zero-emission, vehicles.
1. What have the Ford motor company. General Motor's and Honda done concerning electric cars?
A)They have started to produce electric cars.
B)They have done extensive research on electric Cars
C They have given up producing electric cars.
D)They have produced thousands of electric Cars
2. According to Tim Holmes of Ford Europe, battery-powered cars______
A)will be the main transportation vehicles in the future
B)will not be the main transportation vehicles in the future.
C)will be good to the environment in the future
D)will replace petrol-powered vehicles in the future.
3. Which auto manufacturers are still producing electric vehicles?
A)Toyota and Nissan
B)General Motor's and Honda
C)Ford and Toyota
D)Honda and Toyota
4. According to the eighth paragraph, hybrid cars_____
A)offer fewer mileage than petrol driven cars
B)run faster than petrol driven cars
C)run more miles than petrol driven cars
D)offer more batteries than petrol driven cars
5. Which of the following is true about the hope of car manufacturers according to the last paragraph?
A)Low-emission cars should be banned.
B)Only zero-emission cars are allowed to run on motorways.
C)The legislation will encourage car makers to produce more electric cars.
D)The legislation will allow more 10w. emission to be produced.
The potential of closed-circuit television and other new electronic teaching tools is so great that it is fascinating to visualize " the school of tomorrow ".
Televised lessons will originate from a central building having perhaps four or five master studios. The lessons will be carried into classrooms all over a city, or even an entire country.
After a televised lesson has been given, the classroom teacher will take over for the all-important " follow-up" period. The students will ask any troublesome questions, and difficult points will be cleared up through discussion.
The teacher in the classroom will have additional electronic tools. On the teacher's desk, the traditional chalk and erasers will have been replaced by a multiple-control panel and magnetic tape player. The tape machines will run pre-recorded lessons which pupils will follow by headphones. The lessons will be specifically geared to the students' levels of ability. For instance, while the class as a whole studies history, each student will receive an individual history lesson, directed to his particular level of ability.
Should question arise, the students will be able to talk directly to the teacher on individual " intercoms " without disturbing the rest of the class. In this way, the teacher will be able to conduct as many as three classes at the same time.
With the rapid development of computer science, students will be aided with specially prepared multi-media software to study their subjects better. Homework will possibly be assigned and handed in via electronic mail system. Students can even take examinations on their computer linked with the teacher's and get the score instantly. They will get certificates or diplomas if they pass all the required examinations. Experts believe that this type of education will be very popular in the years ahead.
1. Lessons broadcast by television will come from________
A) the school of tomorrow.
C) big buildings.
D) master studios.
2. Which of the following statement about the function of the teacher in the teaching process is true?
A) The teacher will not need to be involved.
B) The teacher will still have to play an important role.
C) The teacher will only need to press buttons.
D) The teacher will be completely replaced by electronic tools.
3. When having lessons, the students will________
A) always listen to the same pre-recorded lessons together.
B) usually have individual lessons according to their ability levels .
C) control the multiple-control panel and magnetic tape players.
D) receive face-to-face instructions from the teacher in the same classroom.
4. If there are questions, the students will________
A) talk to the teacher through " intercoms ".
B) raise their hands and wait for the answer.
C) discuss them with the rest of the class.
D) solve the problems all by themselves.
5. Computer teaching will help the study in the following ways except that_____
A) teachers can give and collect homework using electronic mail system.
B) examinations can conducted on computers better than on paper.
C) test scores can be obtained soon after the test is taken.
D) certificates or diplomas are required if the students want to pass the tests.
The first four minutes
When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book, "Contact: The first four minutes," he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendships: __1__. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that.
You may have noticed that average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he as just met.__2__. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did not like him very much.
When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, "People like people who like themselves."
On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to appear interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other person has his won needs, fears, and hopes.
Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I'm not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to at that way."
__3__. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. "It is like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar at first, but it goes much better than the old one."
But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honest" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, and a certain amount of play-acting may be best for the first few minutes of contact with a stranger. That is not the time to complain about one's health or to mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
__4__. For a husband and wife or a parent and child, problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed, they should be dealt with later.
The author says that interpersonal relations should be taught as a required course in every school, along with reading, writing, and mathematics. __5__ that is at least as important as how much we know.
A. In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits.
B. Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends.
C. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people.
D. Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes.
E. He keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of the room.
F. He is eager to make friends with everyone.
The first four minutes
Preferences Vary on Circumstance of Dying
Among terminally ill people, attitudes differ on what they think constitutes a __l __ or bad death, the results of a new study suggest.
Dr. Elizabeth K. Vig of the University of Washington in Seattle and colleagues interviewed 26 men with __2__ heart disease or cancer. The men were asked to describe good and bad deaths, and they also answered questions about their __3__for dying.
"In this small study, terminally ill men described good and bad deaths __4__" Vig said. "They did not hold uniform views about such issues __5__the presence of others at the very end of life or preferred location of death."
Many of the men considered __6 __in their sleep to be a good death. The reasons were varied and included not __7__ that death was imminent, and that death would be painless.
For close to half of the men, a prolonged death was__8__ a bad death. Some of the men equated a prolonged death with prolonged pain, __9__others thought a prolonged death would be difficult for their families.
Most men said that their __10__ were very important to them, but this did not mean that they wanted relatives close at the __11__ of death. "Valuing family did not also __12__ wanting family present at the very end of life," Vig said.
"In fact, some expressed concerns about __13__ loved ones," Vig said. For instance, some men were worried about the emotional or __14__ impact on their family members, according to the Washington researcher. Some were worried __15__their need for care would be a burden on their families, she said.
terminally adv. 末期地，晚期地；不治地，致命地
imminent adv. 即将发生(或来临)的(指危险、祸患、不幸等)
prolong vt. 延长；拖长；拉长
equate vt. 使等同
1. A. wrong B. pure C. good D. whole
2. A. either B. terminal C. final D. terrible
3. A. perfections B. presence C. preferences D. references
4. A. differently B. similarly C. strangely D. heartlessly
5. A. like B. as C. including D. for
6. A. working B. dying C. talking D. dreaming
7. A. regarding B. thinking C. wanting D. knowing
8. A. meant B. presented C. considered D. taken
9. A. when B. although C. because D. while
10. A. families B. friends C. colleagues D. wishes
11. A. beginning B. time C. period D. end
12. A. stand B. mean C. represent D. signal
13. A. missing B. helping C. burdening D. leaving
14. A. financial B. physical C. social D. historical
15. A. unless B. if C. why D. that