1. The government is debating the education laws.
A) discussing B) defeating C) delaying D) declining
2. They had a far better yield than any other farm miles away around this year.
A) goods B) soil
C) climate D) harvest
3. The city has decided to do away with all the old buildings in its center.
A) get rid of B) set up
C) repair D) paint
4. During the past ten years there have been dramatic changes in the international situation.
A) permanent B) powerful
C) striking D) practical
5. Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.
A) slight B) surprising C) sudden D) harmful
6. Cement was seldom used in building the Middle Ages.
A) crudely B) rarely C) originally D)occasionally
7. There is an abundant supply of cheap labor in this country.
A) a steady B) a plentiful C) an extra D) a stable
8. The most crucial problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.
A)puzzling B) difficult C) terrifying D) urgent
9. He made an immense amount of money in business.
A) a large B) a small C) a limited D) a little
10. The substance can be added to gasoline to accelerate the speed of automobiles.
A) quicken B)shorten C) loosen D) enlarge
11. We should never content ourselves with a little book knowledge only.
A) convince B)satisfy C) comfort D) benefit
12. We should contemplated the problem from all sides
A) deliberated B)thought C) described D) designed
13. His health had deteriorated while he was in prison.
A) became better B)became worse C) became stronger D) became weaker
14. I meant to give you this book today, but I forgot.
A) intended to B)tended to C) extended to D) pretended to
15. As a matter of fact, I love soft music more than popular music.
A) basically B)probably C) actually D) accurately
Irradiating fruits, vegetables, pork and chicken to kill insects and bacteria has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration over the past decade or so. Irradiation of other meats, such as beef and lamb, is being reviewed. Federal approval does not require that industry adopt the process, and few food processors presently offer irradiated products.
Market studies have shown that many consumers are afraid that eating irradiated foods may cause cancer, despite scientific studies that prove the safety of treated foods. Some people argue that more severe government inspection, higher food-safety standards, and more careful-preparation practices by consumers are all that is needed to ensure that food is safe. Consequently, companies currently see no need to spend millions of dollars outfitting processing plants with the equipment necessary for a process that very few shoppers are in favor of.
All supermarkets that sell irradiated food must label the food either directly on the packaging, or, in the case of bulk items like fruits and vegetables, by placing a sign nearby. There is no requirement for the labeling of irradiated food served by chain restaurants or hospitals that buy directly from distributors, nor any regulations for products that contain irradiated ingredients.
Presently, the FDA allows food to be treated with three types of radiation -- gamma rays, high-energy electrons, and X rays -- and sets limits on doses, depending on the type of food. The principle is that the dose to be used for a certain type of food should not exceed the amount that is sufficient to kill most harmful insects and bacteria present in it. Different types of food, because of their molecular compositions, may require different doses of radiation.
1. According to the passage, killing insects and bacteria present in foods by irradiating is not completely approved by the US government.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
2. There are quite a number of food processors which are interested in producing irritated foods.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
3. Some consumers are doubtful of the safety of irradiated foods and suggest a more severe government inspection be taken.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
4. Some companies foresee the promising future of setting up food processing factories, although they do not see the need now.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
5. It is required that labels placed on irradiated food or nearby bulk items such as vegetables and fruits should indicate irradiated ingredients.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
6. Restaurants can serve irradiated food bought directly from distributors without labeling it.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
7. The passage tells us that FDA approves irradiating food to some extent but irradiated food is not widely accepted.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
第三部分：概括大意与完成句子 （每题1分, 共8分）
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：（1）1---4 题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2--5 段每段选择1个正确的小标题；（2）第5--8题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确的选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
Soot and Snow：a Hot Combination
l New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot alter the way sunlight reflects off snow. According to a computer simulation, black soot may be responsible for 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century.
2 Soot in the higher latitudes of the Earth, where ice is more common, absorbs more of the sun's energy and warmth than an icy, white background. Dark-colored black carbon, or soot, absorbs sunlight, while lighter colored ice reflects sunlight.
3 Soot in areas with snow and ice may play all important role in climate change. Also, if snow and ice covered areas begin melting, the warming effect increases, as the soot becomes more concentrated on the snow surface. "This provides a positive feedback, as glaciers and ice sheet smelt; they tend to get even dirtier," said Dr. James Hansen, a researcher at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York.
4 Hansen found soot's effect on snow albedo (solar energy reflected back to space), which may be contributing to trends toward early springs in the Northern Hemisphere, such as thinning Arctic sea ice, melting glaciers and permafrost. Soot also is believed to play a role in changes in the atmosphere above the oceans and land.
5 "Black carbon reduces the amount of energy reflected by snow back into space, thus heating the snow surface more than if there were no black carbon," Hansen said. Soot's increased absorption of solar energy is especially effective in warming the world's climate. "This forcing is unusually effective, causing twice as much global warming as a carbon dioxide forcing of the same magnitude," Hansen noted.
6 Hansen cautioned, "although the role of soot in altering global climate is substantial, it does not alter the fact that greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the past century. Such gases are expected to be the largest climate forcing the rest of this century.
7 The researchers found that observed warming in the Northern Hemisphere was 1arge in the winter and spring at middle and high latitudes. These observations were consistent with the researchers' climate model simulations, which showed some of the largest warming effects occurred when there were heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
soot n. 煤烟, 煤灰
emission n. 释放, 散发, 排放
simulation v. 模拟
latitude n. 纬度
glacier n. 冰川, 冰河
albedo n. 反照率
permafrost n. 永冻层
forcing n. 温室作用
dioxide n. 二氧化物
magnitude n. 量, 大小
1. Paragraph 3____________
2. Paragraph 4____________
3. Paragraph 6____________
4. Paragraph 7____________
5. In the twentieth century, soot____________
6. Hansen cautioned that greenhouse gases____________
7. Black soot covered snow and ice____________
8. A soot forcing is unusually effective, which____________
Medical journals are publications that report medical information to physicians and other health professionals.
In the past, these journals were available only in print. With the development of electronic publishing, many medical journals now have Web sites on the Internet, and some journals publish only online. A few medical journals, like the Journal of the American Medical Association, are considered general medical journals because they cover many fields of medicine. Most medical journals are specialty journals that focus on a particular area of medicine.
Medical journals publish many types of articles. Research articles report the results of research studies on a range of topics varying from the basic mechanisms of diseases to clinical trials that compare outcomes of different treatments. Review articles summarize and analyze the information available on a specific topic based on a careful search of the medical literature.
Because the results of individual research studies can be affected by many factors, combining results from different studies on the same topic can be helpful in reaching conclusions about the scientific evidence for preventing, diagnosing or treating a particular disease. Case conferences and case reports may be published in medical journals to educate physicians about particular illnesses and how to treat at them. Editorials in medical journals are short essays that express the views of the authors, often regarding a research or review article published in the same issue.
Editorials provide perspective on how the current article fits with other information on the same topic. Letters to the editor provide a way for readers of the medical journal to express comments, questions or criticisms about articles published in that journal.
1. The main readers of medical journals are__________
A)the general public.
2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A) Many medical journals also publish online.
B)A few medical journals are general medical journals.
C)Most medical journals publish only online.
D)Most medical journals are specialty journals.
3. How many major types of articles are mentioned in the passage?
4. An article dealing with results from different studies on the same topic is called_________
A)a research article.
B)a review article.
C)a case report.
5. Letters to the editor enable readers of a medical journal to express comments on________
A)any medical event.
B) articles published in the same issue.
C)articles published in that journal
Common Problems, Common Solutions
The chances are that you made up your mind about smoking a long time ago --- and decided it's not for you.
The chances are equally good that you know a lot of smokers -- there are, after all about 60 million of them, work with them, and get along with them very well.
And finally it's a pretty safe bet that you're open-minded and interested in all the various issues about smokers and nonsmokers -- or you wouldn't be reading this.
And those three things make you incredibly important today.
Because they mean that yours is the voice -- not the smoker's and not the anti-smoker's --that will determine how much of society's efforts should go into building walls that separate us and how much into the search for solutions that bring us together.
For one tragic result of the emphasis on building walls is the diversion of millions of dollars from scientific research on the causes and cures of diseases which, when all is said and done, still strike the nonsmoker as well as the smoker. One prominent health organization, to cite but a single instance, now spends 28 cents of every publicly contributed dollar on " education " (much of it in anti-smoking propaganda) and only 2 cents on research.
There will always be some who want to build walls, who want to separate people from people, and up to a point, even these may serve society. The anti-smoking wall-builders have, to give them their due, helped to make us all more keenly aware of choice.
But our guess, and certainly our hope, is that you are among the far greatest number who know that walls are only temporary at best, and that over the long run, we can serve society's interest better by working together in mutual accommodation.
Whatever virtue walls may have, they can never move our society toward fundamental solutions. People who work together on common problems, common solutions, can.
1. What does the word "wall" used in the passage mean?
A) Anti-smoking propaganda.
B) Diseases striking nonsmokers as well as smokers.
C) Rules and regulations that prohibit smoking.
D) Separation of smokers from nonsmokers.
2. In paragraph 4, "you" refers to
D) smokers who have quitted smoking.
3. It is evident that the author is not in favor of_______
A) building a wall between smokers and nonsmokers.
B) doing scientific research at the expense of one's health.
C) bringing smokers and nonsmokers together.
D) proving accommodation for smokers.
4. As is suggested, the common solution to the common problem is______
A) to separate people from people.
B) to work together in mutual accommodation.
C) to make us more keenly aware of choice.
D) to serve society's interests better.
5. According to the passage, the writer looks upon the anti-smoking wall-builders' actions_______
The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive "attachment" period from birth to three may scar a child's personality and result in emotional problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby's work that children should not be subjected to day care before the age of three because of the parental separation it entails, and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments against such a strong conclusion. Firstly, anthropologists point out that the insulated love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. For example, in some tribal societies, such as the Ngoni, the father and mother of a child did not rear their infant alone—far from it'. Secondly, common sense tells US that day care would not be so widespread today if parents found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out, and even if they were, the results would be certain to be complicated and controversial. Thirdly, in the last decade there have been a number of careful American studies of children in day care, and they have uniformly reported that day care had a neural or slightly positive effect on children's development. But tests that have had to be used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue.
But Bowlby's analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to, say, more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later. Whatever the long—term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with children under three are likely to protest at leaving their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the transition to nursery easy, and this is undoubtedly why more and more parents make use of child care at this time. The matter, then, is far from clear-cuff, though experience and available evidence indicate that earl care is reasonable for infants.
psychoanalyst n. 精神分析学家一心理分析学家
insulate vt. 隔绝
rear vt. 抚养
care taker n.照顾者, 看管人
entail vt. 使必需，使蒙受，使承担，遗传给
infant n. 婴儿
anthropologist n. 人类学家
1. Which of the following statements would Bowlby support?
A) Statistical studies should be carried out to assess the positive effect of day car for children at the age of three or older.
B) Early day care can delay the occurrence of mental illness in children.
C) The first three years of one's life is extremely important to the later development of personality.
D) Children under three get used to the life at nursery schools more readily than children over three
2. Which of the following is derivable from Bowlby's work?
A)Mothers should not send their children to day care centers before the age of three.
B)Day care nurseries have positive effects on a child's development.
C)A child sent to a day care center before the age of three may have emotional problems in later life.
D) Day care would not be so popular as noticeable negative effects on a child's personality.
3. It is suggested that modern societies differ from traditional societies in that_______
A)the parents—child relationship is more exclusive in modern societies.
B)a child more often grows up with his(her brothers or sisters in traditional societies.
C)mother brings up children with the help of her husband in traditional societies.
D)children in modern societies are more likely to develop mental illness in later years
4. Which of the following statements is NOT an argument against Bowlby's theory?
A)Many studies show that day care has a positive effect on children's development.
B)The fact that there are so many nursery schools today shows that day care is safe.
C)The separation of young children from their parents is common in some traditional societies.
D)Parents find the immediate effects of early day care difficult to deal with.
5 Which of the following best expresses the writer's attitude towards early day care?
A)Children under three should stay with their parents.
B)Early day care has positive effects on children's development.
C)The issue is controversial and its settlement calls for the use of statistics.
D)The effects of early day care on children are exaggerated and parents should ignore the issue.
Why do people shrink?
Did you ever see the movie Honey, I shrunk the kids? It's about a wacky dad (who's also a scientist) who accidentally shrinks his kids with his homemade miniaturizing invention. Oops! ____1____.
For older people, shrinking isn't that dramatic or sudden at all. It takes place over years and may add up to only one inch or so off of their adult height (maybe a little more, maybe less), and this kind of shrinking can't be magically reversed, although there are things that can be done to stop it or slow it down. ___2___.
There are a few reasons. As people get older, they generally lose some muscle and fat from their bodies as part of the natural aging process. Gravity (the force that keeps your feet on the ground) take hold, and the bones in the spine, called vertebrae, may break down or degenerate, and start to collapse into one another. ___3___. But perhaps the most common reason why some older people shrink is because of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis occurs when too much spongy bone tissue (which is found inside of most bones) is broken down and not enough new bone material is made. ___4___. Bones become smaller and weaker and can easily break if someone with osteoporosis is injured. Older people --especially women, who generally have smaller and lighter bones to begin with -- are more likely to develop osteoporosis. As years go by, a person with osteoporosis shrinks a little bit.
Did you know that every day you do a shrinking act? You aren't as tall at the end of the day as you are at the beginning. That's because as the day goes on, water in the disks of the spine gets compressed (squeezed) due to gravity, making you just a tiny bit shorter. Don't worry, though. ___5___.
A. They end up pressing closer together, which makes a person lose a little height and become shorter.
B. Once you get a good night's rest, your body recovers, and the next morning, you're standing tall again.
C. Over time, bone is said to be lost because it's not being replaced.
D. Luckily, there are things that people can do to prevent shrinking.
E. The kids spend the rest of the movie as tiny people who are barely visible while trying to get back to their normal size.
F. But why does shrinking happen at all?
Something Men Do Not Like to Do
Eric Brown hates shopping. "It's just not enjoyable to me," said the 28. years old. Chicago man who was carrying several shopping bags along the city's main street, Michigan Avenue. “When I, m out____1___, I basically know what 1 want to get. I rush in. I buy it. I___2___' Common wisdom says that guys hate to shop. You can ask generations of men. But people who study shopping say that a number of social, cultural and economic factors are now ___3___this "men-hate, to-shop" notion. "___4___social class, ethnicity, age—men say they hate to shop," says Sharon Zukin, a City University of New York sociology professor. “Yet when you ask them deeper questions, it turns out that they___5___tO shop. Men generally like to shop for___6___, music and hardware. But if you ask them about the shopping they do for books or music, they'll say 'Well' that's not shopping. That's ___7___…
In other words, what men and women call "buying things" and how they approach that task are ___8____
Women will___ 9___ through several 1,000 square meter stores in search of the perfect party dress. Men will wander through 100 Internet sites in search of the ___l0___ digital camcorder.
Women see shopping as a social event. Men see it as a mission or a___11___to be won. "Men are frequently shopping to win," says Mary Ann McGrath, a marketing professor at Loyola University of Chicago. "They want to get the best deal. They want to get the best one, The last one and if they do that it__12__them happy."
When women shop, "they're doing it in a way where they want__l3__ to be very happy," says McGrath. "They're kind of2shopping for love."
In fact, it is in clothing where we see a male-female__14__most clearly. Why, grumble some men, are all male clothes navy, grey, black or brown? But would they wear 1ight green and pink?
These days, many guys wear a sort of "uniform", says Paco Underhill, author of "Why We Bye", "It's been hard for them to understand what it means to be fashion. Conscious in a business way. It becomes much, much easier if you__15__your range of choices."
guy n. 家伙, 伙计
wander n. 漫游, 闲游
mission n. 任务, 使命
grumble n. 抱怨, 发牢骚
ethnicity n. 种族特点
camcorder n. 摄像放像机
deal n. 交易
1. A)playing B)fishing C)shopping D)traveling
2. A)get out B)stay in C)look round D)move about
3。A)confirming. B)challenging C)proving D)supporting
4. A)Regardless of B)Because of C)Owing to D)Thanks to
5. A)want B)like C)hate D)hope
6. A)coats B)pants C)socks D)books
7. A)relaxation B)rest C)exercise D), research
8. A)similar B)inclusive C)contradictory D)different
9. A)wander B)go C)walk D)run
10.A)cheap B)fashionable C)presentable D)perfect
11. A)task B)play C)game D)destination
12. A)brings B)causes C)makes D)keeps
13. A)everybody B)nobody C)anybody D)no one
14. A)competition B)comparison C)division D)confrontation
15. A)broaden B)expand C)extend D)narrow