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2008-08-05 11:58  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

  Listening Faults聆听的误区

  1. Have you ever thought of listening as something you could do right or wrong? Few people had, until recently. Now it is being proved that most of us aren't letting our ears do all they should to help us. And we are losing out in ways both large and small, which is too bad when we realize that good listening can be very valuable indeed. In fact it is surprising just how big a part our two listening ears play in our success in school, in our careers, in our relations with family and friends.
  1、你是否想过聆听也有对错之分?至今,很少有人思考过这个问题。目前已经证明,大多数人没能让耳朵尽其所能来帮助我们。当我们意识到有效的倾听是多么重要时,我们才知道自己在很多方面都有所损失,这真是太糟糕了。事实上,两只耳朵在我们的学匀、工作和与家庭、朋友的关系里扮演的角色之重要,实在令人惊讶。

  2. Therefore, how we listen is extremely important. Yet it has been proved that most of us are guilty of from one to nine bad listening habits.
  2、因此,如何聆听极其重要。然而,事实证明下面提到的九个聆听坏习惯中或多或少都能在大多数人的身上找到。

  3. Few of us want to be poor listeners or even realize that we are—until we meet up with situations which show us.
  3、没有人愿意做一个不会听话的人,即便就是这样的人,本人也意识不到,除非事实明摆在眼前。

  4. Take Janet, for instance.
  4、以简尼特为例。

  5. It came as a horrid shock to her to learn on the way to Sunday school one morning that she was to have read certain chapters in the Bible and be prepared with a little talk on them that day. And no wonder Janet was surprised. She thought she had been listening in class the week before. But apparently the words had bounced right off her ears. Why? How had she listened wrong?
  5、一天早晨,在去教会的周日学校的路上,她突然记起他应该要读过《圣经》中的几个章节,并且还要准备好在那天就这几个章节作一个小小的发言,这让她非常震惊。也难怪简尼特有此反应。她以为一个星期前自己在课堂上认真听讲,但很显然,这些话只是从她耳边掠过。为什么?她错在哪里?

  6. There are about nine ways of listening that net us nothing but trouble, according to Dr. Ralph Nichols of the University of Minnesota. If we recognize and try to conquer them, we can step up our listening ability by about twenty-five percent and thereby greatly increase our chances for success in our daily lives.
  6、明尼苏达州立大学的Ralph Nichols博士认为,有9种聆听的情形给人们造成麻烦。如果认识到并且努力克服它们,我们的聆听能力就能提高25%,从而大大增加我们在日常生活中成功的机会。

  7. Unless you are very unusual indeed, says Dr. Nichols, you must plead guilty to several of the following bad listening habits:
  7、RalphNichols博士认为,除非你非常特殊,否则的话,你一定会承认自己有下面提到的坏习惯。

  8. Daydream Listening: You can think about four times as fast as the average person speaks. So you have quite a bit of spare thinking time while waiting for the words to come in. Unconsciously, you use this time, if you are a poor listener, to let your thoughts drift elsewhere.
  8、白日梦式聆听:人思考的速度比平均的说话速度快4倍。因此,在等待别人说出下一句话时,你会有一段空余的思维时间。如果你是一个差劲的聆听者,你的思绪就会不知不觉地在这段时间飘走。

  9. For instance, your teacher is giving you some background material on American history. Your mind is with him at first. Then other thoughts drift into that spare thinking space. Without warning, they have taken over your mind entirely…… I mustn't forget to go downtown after school for Mother. If only my bike was fixed! Maybe I can get Joe to come over Saturday and help me…… Your thoughts drift on. Suddenly, with a jolt, you hear these words: "Now we'll have a little test on what I have been explaining." Ouch!
  9、比如说,你的老师正在讲述美国历史的背景资料。起初你注意地听着;之后,其他的念头就会进入那段空余的思维时间;然后在没有任何预兆的情况下,完全占据你的整个大脑……“一定别忘记放学后替母亲进城办事”。“要是我的自行车修理好了该多好!,”也许能让Joe星期六过来帮我……“你的思绪就这样漫无目的地飘荡,突然间,你听到这样令人震惊的话:”现在,就我刚才讲的进行一个小测验。“真糟糕啊!

  10. So what to do to keep daydreams from filtering in? One way is to put that extra thinking time to work—on the subject. Sum up what the speaker is saying; look for major points. Pretend you are going to have to repeat his ideas. Put his words into your words. It isn't easy. It takes effort and time to learn. But the results are sure to surprise and please you.
  10、那么,怎样做才能控制“白日梦”钻进来呢?一个方法是把这些多出来的思维时间用来考虑一些跟主题有关的事。例如,概括一下发言人说的话;找出他的发言要点;假定你要重复他的观点,将他的话用自、己的方式重新复述一遍。要做到这些并不容易,你必须付出时间和精力去学习。但是,结果肯定是出乎意料和愉快的。

  11. Shut-Ear Listening: Maybe you feel you already know what the speaker is going to say. Or his subject couldn't interest you less. You turn off your ears—and who knows what you may be missing or when a little knowledge on that subject may come in mighty handy? Anyway, why take the risk?
  11、充耳不闻式聆听:可能你觉得早已经知道发言者将要说什么;或者,他讲的主题根本不能吸引你,因此你“关闭”了耳朵—那么,谁知道你可能错过了什么?谁又知道什么时候他讲的可能会派上用场?不管怎样,为什么要冒这样的风险呢?

  12. "That's-What-You-Think" Listening: You have your own pet ideas on certain subjects. You don't like to hear anything which might make you question them. So when anyone begins arguing on the other side, you simply stop listening. Instead you plan what you are going to answer. Anyone who refuses too often to listen to the other side of a question risks becoming narrow-minded—an exasperating and unattractive trait in the other fellow. Is it any more becoming to you? No thanks, you say, and decide to hear the other fellow out. Maybe he is right. Maybe you are. But you can give him a better argument on your viewpoint if you hear what he says.
  12、内心排斥式聆听:对于某些主题你会有自己的观点,就不愿意听到与之相左的见解。因此,当别人开始陈述与你相反看法时,你干脆不再听。只是思考着自己该怎样回应。那些经常拒绝倾听对立意见的人往往会变得思维狭窄—这在别人眼中是一种令人恼怒和厌烦的表现。你现在还想成为这样的人吗?你会说,当然不。然后决定去认真地听完别人的阐述。可能他是正确的,也可能你是正确的。但是,如果你听了他的观点,你就可以用自己的观点更好地去反驳他

  13. Fake Listening: You pretend to be giving close attention. You toss in a few nods and yeses at the right moments, you hope. This is a common faulty listening habit that fools no one. Your eyes give you away, if your absent-minded answers don't. And can you think of anything more infuriating than to be given the same treatment? Also, it is extremely difficult to respond satisfactorily to words you didn't hear. Good conversations, if not friendships, have been sacrificed to this habit.
  13、佯装式聆听:你假装在注意听;还期望自己在恰当的时刻能够点头附和。这种常见的坏的聆听习惯欺骗不了任何人。即使那些不着边际的回答没露馅,你的眼睛也会出卖你。有什么能比受到(听众)这样的对待更让人生气呢?而且,对自己没有认真聆听的问题做出满意的回答是极其困难的。这样一个坏习惯让你失去的可能不仅仅是交流,甚至可能是与别人的友谊。

  14. Over-My-Head2 Listening: You are convinced that the subject is beyond you, so you depart, at least in spirit. You may be right. And then again you may be wrong. If you let the words enter your mind, you may be surprised to discover that they make sense. But even if they are as strange as Greek to you, you should try to listen and understand. Otherwise you may find some day that you must attempt to grasp an over-your-head idea and be totally unable even to try.
  14、不知所云式聆听:你确信正在谈论的主题超过了你的理解范围,于是你起身离开,至少也是心猿意马。你可能做的对;但你也可能是错的。如果你用心去听,就可能会惊讶地发现这些话很有道理。即使这些词句像希腊语般晦涩难懂,你还是应该尽力去聆听和理解。否则有一天你会发现自己处在这样一种境地:必须要听懂某些艰深的内容,但自己却连基本的能力都没有。

  15. Memory Test Listening: Some people think that trying to memorize a series of facts is good listening. They are wrong. For instance, you are getting a story for your school paper on an assembly speaker. He makes a series of points. You try to memorize them. But while you are busy planting facts A, B, and C in your mind, repeating them over and over, you are losing out on facts D and E. Better to look for main ideas. You will find them more useful and easier to recall later.
  15、记忆测试式聆听:有人认为有效的聆听就是将所有的细节都记住。他们错了。比如,你想从某人的大会发言中为自己的论文汲取素材。他罗列了很多点,你努力去记住它们。当你忙着重复一条条观点,想把它们牢牢地记在脑子里时,却恰恰忽略了其余内容。最好的方式是抓住要点,你会发现它们更有用,而且更容易帮助你回忆。

  16. Take-It-All-Down Listening: When you try to get too many of the speaker's words on paper, part of your mind must be concerned with your note-taking. You are unable to concentrate fully on what he is saying. You risk losing valuable points. Where note-taking is necessary—and you may be surprised to find out how often it isn't if you concentrate fully on listening—try to jot down only a memory-jogging word or two. Or put the main ideas on paper after the speaker has finished. The more complete attention you give the speaker, the easier it will be to recall his ideas later.
  16、全部记录式聆听:当你奋力记录说话人的尽可能多的词句时,一部分注意力必然会集中在“笔记”之上。因此,你不会全力倾听,就可能错过有价值的信息。如果你全神贯注地听,并不时记下一两点内容以帮助记忆,你会惊讶地发现,并不是所有的东西都需要记录,甚至可以在演讲结束后再记下要点。对发言者的关注越多,事后就越容易回忆起他的主要观点。

  17. Personality Listening: You become so concerned with the way the speaker looks or how he talks that what he says fails to penetrate. Perhaps unconsciously you decide that a person who dresses or speaks like that can't have much to say. That could be a very false conclusion. Who knows what you may be missing? It's the old story: you can't judge a gift by the package. Better to judge him after you have heard him out.
  17、关注个人式聆听:过分关注讲话者的长相或是他说话的方式,那么他所说的内容就很难入心。也许你会下意识地认为这样穿着或这样讲话的人不会说出什么有见地的话来。这样的结论实属错误。谁能知道你会错过什么?俗话说,不要从包装来判断礼物的价值(人不可貌相)。最好在倾听完之后再作评价。

  18. Half-An-Ear Listening: Often other sounds compete for your attention—and win. Your father gives you a list of errands. But his voice must compete with, say, your favorite song on the radio. Later, you find that half an ear wasn't enough. You didn't listen to your father's words closely enough to hear and remember them. You have to telephone home for a repeat performance. And you can't really blame your father for being irritated. Better to turn off the radio, shut the door on competing noises, if possible. If not, guard against your tendency to listen to distracting sounds.
  18、半个耳朵式聆听:常常会有其他的声音来吸引你的注意力——还占了上风。比如,父亲正在给你交待要办的事情,他的声音不得不与收音机里传来的你最喜欢的歌声相抗衡。后来你发现这样“半个耳朵听”根本不行,因为你没有听到并记住父亲的话,于是只能打电话回家再次询问。你实在不能责怪父亲为此发火。如果可能,最好关掉收音机、关上门挡住繁杂的噪音。如果不可能,管住你自己不要被这些声音所吸引。

  19. So there are the forces—some within ourselves, some outside—that work against us in our efforts to listen. But once we learn what they are and how to fight them, we are well on our way to getting rid of wasteful listening habits.
  19、所以,某些因素—既有内在的,也有外在的——总是阻碍我们去全力倾听。然而,一旦认识了它们并了解如何去克服,我们就一定能够改掉这些耗时低效的坏习惯。

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