Department of Energy Established.
1. Legislation creating the Department of Energy passed the Senate on May 18 and the House on June 3, 1977. Congressional action, including approval of the conference report, was completed by August 3. President Carter signed the bill into law （Public Law 95-91） on August 4, 1977. The next day Carter named Schlesinger as the first Secretary of Energy. The Department was officially activated on October 1, 1977.
2. Schlesinger's initial task was to meld all headquarters, field, and staff programs from the component agencies, including their various supporting offices and functions, into a unified Department of Energy with about 20,000 employees and an annual budget of $10.4 billion. The Department's first Secretary contended that, historically, the problem with new departments had been that they pulled together existing agencies under the same roof without integrating the activities of those agencies. The legislation creating the Department of Energy, Schlesinger believed, was broad enough to allow him to achieve the desired effective integration. Department of Energy Organization and Structure
3. The new Department of Energy did not simply organize existing agencies and offices under new leadership but reshaped many programs and functions to fit the national energy policy of the Carter Administration. By law, the Department would be led by three principal officers: the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary. Energy technologies would not be divided by fuel type, such as fossil, nuclear, or solar, but grouped under assistant secretaries according to their evolution from research and development through application and commercialization. This approach reflected the administration's decision to formulate a comprehensive energy policy rather than to engage simply in fuel management. Thus basic research was placed in the Office of Energy Research. Individual research and development projects in solar, geothermal, fossil, and nuclear energy were placed under the assistant secretary for energy technology. After scientific and technical feasibility was determined, projects would be transferred to the assistant secretary for resource applications or to the assistant secretary for conservation and solar applications, who had specialized expertise in commercialization and energy markets. The assistant secretary for environment would assure that all departmental programs were consistent with environmental and safety laws, regulations, and policies. The assistant secretary for defense programs would inherit responsibility for the nuclear weapons programs.
3、新的能源部并不是简单地在新的领导机制下重组旧有的政府机构和部门，而是对很多项目和职能进行再造，使之适应卡特政府所推行的国家能源政策。依据法律，能源部由三名主要领导人负责：部长（Secretary），常务副部长（Deputy Secretary）和副部长（Under Secretary）。能源技术将不会依据燃料品种分类，例如化石燃料、核燃料或太阳能，而是依照从研发到应用和商业化的不同发展阶段，由不同的部长助理（Assistant Secretary）分管。这种方式反映出政府的一个理念：即制定综合的能源政策，而不是简单地进行燃料管理。因此，基础研究归属能源研究局负责。有关太阳能、地热、化石燃料和核能源的特别研发项目由主管能源技术的部长助理负责。一旦其科技可行性确定之后，项目将转给分管资源应用的部长助理，或分管节能和太阳能应用的部长助理，他们在商业化和能源市场领域具有专长。分管环境的部长助理将负责保证能源部的所有项目必须符合相关的环境和安全方面的法律、法规、政策。分管国防项目的部长助理将接手核武器计划的管理责任。
4. The Department, despite its diverse origins, was structured to allow for the continuity of programs and functions from predecessor organizations while blending their expertise into new management teams. All activities of the Federal Energy Administration and the Energy Research and Development Administration were distributed among appropriate assistant secretaries, administrators, and the director of the Office of Energy Research. Also, limited functions were transferred from the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. Additional transfer included the Alaska, Bonneville, Southeastern, and Southwestern power marketing administrations from the Interior Department and the Navy oil reserves and oil shale reserves from the Department of Defense.
5. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission was established as an independent agency within the Department of Energy. The five-member commission, headed by a chairman, was given the responsibility for the licensing and regulation of hydroelectric power projects, the regulation of electric utilities, the transmission and sale of electric power, the transportation and sale of natural gas, and the operation of natural gas and oil pipelines. The commission inherited most of its functions and personnel from the Federal Power Commission, which had been established in 1920. In addition, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's authority to regulate oil pipelines came from the Interstate Commerce Commission.
6. Regulatory programs not included in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission were placed under the Economic Regulatory Administration, one of two administrations created in the Department. The Economic Regulatory Administration assumed the oil pricing, allocation, and import programs, which had been administered by the Federal Energy Administration. Most of these programs had been established during the 1973-1974 oil embargo under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act and extended by subsequent legislation. Other regulatory programs included emergency and contingency plans, controls over importing and exporting natural gas, supervision of utilities and industry converting from oil and gas to coal, establishment of priorities for natural gas curtailment, and coordination of regional power systems.
7. The Department's second administration, the Energy Information Administration, consolidated the Federal Government's many diverse energy data systems. By centralizing the most important data-gathering activities, the Energy Information Administration would provide comprehensive data and timely analysis for the President, the Department, Congress, and the public. To determine reliability of data, the administration would conduct field audits. Besides projecting long-term energy trends, the administration was expected to develop systems for estimating national fuel reserves and reporting the financial status of energy producing companies.
8. The Department of Energy inherited about forty regional and field offices, university programs, and laboratories from the predecessor agencies. These varied from the ten regional regulatory offices of the Federal Energy Administration to the Bureau of Mines research laboratories at Bartlesville, Morgantown, Pittsburgh, and Laramie. The bulk of the Department's inherited facilities came from the Atomic Energy Commission, passed on through the short-lived Energy Research and Development Administration. These included eight operations offices and various production and weapons facilities. Perhaps the jewels in the crown were the scientific laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and the new Solar Energy Research Institute established in Golden, Colorado. The Department of Energy thus kept intact the network of national laboratories as a valuable national resource.
8、能源部从以前各个国家机关继承了大约40个不同地区和领域的机构、大学的研究项目和实验室。这些形形色色的机构来自联邦能源局的10个区域管理局，以及联邦矿业局一些科研实验室，这些实验室位于巴特斯韦尔（Bartlesville）、摩根镇（Morgantown）、匹斯堡和雷瑞米（Laramie）等处。能源部所继承的大部分设施间接来自于原子能委员会，曾经短暂存在的能源研究开发署继承了原子能委员会的设施，而能源部又从能源研究开发署继承了这些设备。这些设施包括8个运营办公室、各种生产设施和军工设备。其中可以称为“皇冠上的钻石”（精华、核心部分）的是坐落在阿尔贡（Argonne）、伯克利（Berkeley）、布鲁克海文（Brookhaven）、利沃莫（Livermore）、洛斯阿拉莫斯（Los Alamos）和橡山（Oak Ridge）的科学实验室，以及坐落在科罗拉多州高尔登（Golden）的新太阳能研究所。美国能源部如同保护珍贵的国家资源一样维持着这些实验室网络的完整运作。