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2008-08-05 11:10  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

Department of Energy Established.
建立能源部

  1. Legislation creating the Department of Energy passed the Senate on May 18 and the House on June 3, 1977. Congressional action, including approval of the conference report, was completed by August 3. President Carter signed the bill into law (Public Law 95-91) on August 4, 1977. The next day Carter named Schlesinger as the first Secretary of Energy. The Department was officially activated on October 1, 1977.
  1、美国参议院于1977年5月18日、众议院于6月3日通过了创立美国能源部的法律。这样,国会方面的工作,包括批准会议报告,于8月3日全部完成。1977年8月4日,卡特总统签署该法案使其生效(公共法95—91号)。第二天卡特总统提名施莱辛格(Schlesinger)担任第一任能源部长。1977年10月1日美国能源部正式挂牌。

  2. Schlesinger's initial task was to meld all headquarters, field, and staff programs from the component agencies, including their various supporting offices and functions, into a unified Department of Energy with about 20,000 employees and an annual budget of $10.4 billion. The Department's first Secretary contended that, historically, the problem with new departments had been that they pulled together existing agencies under the same roof without integrating the activities of those agencies. The legislation creating the Department of Energy, Schlesinger believed, was broad enough to allow him to achieve the desired effective integration. Department of Energy Organization and Structure
  2、施莱辛格部长面临的首要任务是整合(法律规定的未来能源部)各个从属部门,以及它们的各种支持机构和职能机构的总部、领域和人员安排,使之成为一个拥有2万雇员、104亿美元年预算的能源部。第一任部长说,新能源部所面临的历史性的问题是如何将已经存在的很多机构聚合到同一屋顶之下,而同时又不干扰各自的活动及职能。施莱辛格认为,创立能源部的立法赋予了他足够的权力,能够完成这次有效的整合。能源部的组织结构

  3. The new Department of Energy did not simply organize existing agencies and offices under new leadership but reshaped many programs and functions to fit the national energy policy of the Carter Administration. By law, the Department would be led by three principal officers: the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary. Energy technologies would not be divided by fuel type, such as fossil, nuclear, or solar, but grouped under assistant secretaries according to their evolution from research and development through application and commercialization. This approach reflected the administration's decision to formulate a comprehensive energy policy rather than to engage simply in fuel management. Thus basic research was placed in the Office of Energy Research. Individual research and development projects in solar, geothermal, fossil, and nuclear energy were placed under the assistant secretary for energy technology. After scientific and technical feasibility was determined, projects would be transferred to the assistant secretary for resource applications or to the assistant secretary for conservation and solar applications, who had specialized expertise in commercialization and energy markets. The assistant secretary for environment would assure that all departmental programs were consistent with environmental and safety laws, regulations, and policies. The assistant secretary for defense programs would inherit responsibility for the nuclear weapons programs.
  3、新的能源部并不是简单地在新的领导机制下重组旧有的政府机构和部门,而是对很多项目和职能进行再造,使之适应卡特政府所推行的国家能源政策。依据法律,能源部由三名主要领导人负责:部长(Secretary),常务副部长(Deputy Secretary)和副部长(Under Secretary)。能源技术将不会依据燃料品种分类,例如化石燃料、核燃料或太阳能,而是依照从研发到应用和商业化的不同发展阶段,由不同的部长助理(Assistant Secretary)分管。这种方式反映出政府的一个理念:即制定综合的能源政策,而不是简单地进行燃料管理。因此,基础研究归属能源研究局负责。有关太阳能、地热、化石燃料和核能源的特别研发项目由主管能源技术的部长助理负责。一旦其科技可行性确定之后,项目将转给分管资源应用的部长助理,或分管节能和太阳能应用的部长助理,他们在商业化和能源市场领域具有专长。分管环境的部长助理将负责保证能源部的所有项目必须符合相关的环境和安全方面的法律、法规、政策。分管国防项目的部长助理将接手核武器计划的管理责任。

  4. The Department, despite its diverse origins, was structured to allow for the continuity of programs and functions from predecessor organizations while blending their expertise into new management teams. All activities of the Federal Energy Administration and the Energy Research and Development Administration were distributed among appropriate assistant secretaries, administrators, and the director of the Office of Energy Research. Also, limited functions were transferred from the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. Additional transfer included the Alaska, Bonneville, Southeastern, and Southwestern power marketing administrations from the Interior Department and the Navy oil reserves and oil shale reserves from the Department of Defense.
  4、尽管由来源不同的部门组合而成,能源部的构架使之能够承担起从前任机构那里接手的项目和职能,同时把各家之所长融合到一个新的管理团队中。联邦能源局和能源研究与发展局的所有活动被分割成几部分,分别由部长助理、局长和能源研究办公室的主任相应地负责。同时,农业部、商务部、住房与城市发展部和交通部的一些职能也被转到了这里。另外,还包括从内政部转移来的阿拉斯加、波尼维尔、东南和西南地区电力市场管理局,以及从国防部转来的海军石油储备局和石油页岩储备局。

  5. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission was established as an independent agency within the Department of Energy. The five-member commission, headed by a chairman, was given the responsibility for the licensing and regulation of hydroelectric power projects, the regulation of electric utilities, the transmission and sale of electric power, the transportation and sale of natural gas, and the operation of natural gas and oil pipelines. The commission inherited most of its functions and personnel from the Federal Power Commission, which had been established in 1920. In addition, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's authority to regulate oil pipelines came from the Interstate Commerce Commission.
  5、在美国能源部里设立了联邦能源法规委员会,它是一个独立的国家职能机构,该委员会有五名委员组成,由一个主席领导。联邦能源法规委员会的职责如下:颁发许可证并规范水力发电项目,规范电力设施,电力的输送和销售,天然气的输送和销售以及天然气和石油管道的管理。联邦能源法规委员会从成立于1920年的联邦电力委员会继承了大部分职能和职员。除此之外,其管理天然气和石油管道的权力继承自州际商务委员会。

  6. Regulatory programs not included in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission were placed under the Economic Regulatory Administration, one of two administrations created in the Department. The Economic Regulatory Administration assumed the oil pricing, allocation, and import programs, which had been administered by the Federal Energy Administration. Most of these programs had been established during the 1973-1974 oil embargo under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act and extended by subsequent legislation. Other regulatory programs included emergency and contingency plans, controls over importing and exporting natural gas, supervision of utilities and industry converting from oil and gas to coal, establishment of priorities for natural gas curtailment, and coordination of regional power systems.
  6、那些不归属联邦能源法规委员会的能源立法项目由联邦经济法规局负责,它是在能源部里新成立的两个局之一,负责规范油价、分配和进口等项目。这些项目以前由联邦能源局管理。这些项目中的大多数都是在1973至1974年石油禁运期间依据《(美国)紧急石油分配法》以及后来派生的立法实施的。其他的法律规范活动包括紧急和突发事件应对计划、天然气进出口管制、对从石油和天然气中制取焦碳的工业和应用的监管、压缩天然气优先性的制定,以及区域电力系统之间的协调。

  7. The Department's second administration, the Energy Information Administration, consolidated the Federal Government's many diverse energy data systems. By centralizing the most important data-gathering activities, the Energy Information Administration would provide comprehensive data and timely analysis for the President, the Department, Congress, and the public. To determine reliability of data, the administration would conduct field audits. Besides projecting long-term energy trends, the administration was expected to develop systems for estimating national fuel reserves and reporting the financial status of energy producing companies.
  7、能源信息局是能源部的第二个局,它统一了联邦政府中许多不同的能源数据系统。通过将最重要的数据采集活动集中化,能源信息局为美国总统、能源部、议会和社会提供全面的数据和及时的分析。能源信息局实行现场审计确定数据的可靠性。大家寄期望于能源信息局,希望它能够预测长期能源发展趋势、估算国家燃料储量以及报告能源生产企业财务状况。

  8. The Department of Energy inherited about forty regional and field offices, university programs, and laboratories from the predecessor agencies. These varied from the ten regional regulatory offices of the Federal Energy Administration to the Bureau of Mines research laboratories at Bartlesville, Morgantown, Pittsburgh, and Laramie. The bulk of the Department's inherited facilities came from the Atomic Energy Commission, passed on through the short-lived Energy Research and Development Administration. These included eight operations offices and various production and weapons facilities. Perhaps the jewels in the crown were the scientific laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and the new Solar Energy Research Institute established in Golden, Colorado. The Department of Energy thus kept intact the network of national laboratories as a valuable national resource.
  8、能源部从以前各个国家机关继承了大约40个不同地区和领域的机构、大学的研究项目和实验室。这些形形色色的机构来自联邦能源局的10个区域管理局,以及联邦矿业局一些科研实验室,这些实验室位于巴特斯韦尔(Bartlesville)、摩根镇(Morgantown)、匹斯堡和雷瑞米(Laramie)等处。能源部所继承的大部分设施间接来自于原子能委员会,曾经短暂存在的能源研究开发署继承了原子能委员会的设施,而能源部又从能源研究开发署继承了这些设备。这些设施包括8个运营办公室、各种生产设施和军工设备。其中可以称为“皇冠上的钻石”(精华、核心部分)的是坐落在阿尔贡(Argonne)、伯克利(Berkeley)、布鲁克海文(Brookhaven)、利沃莫(Livermore)、洛斯阿拉莫斯(Los Alamos)和橡山(Oak Ridge)的科学实验室,以及坐落在科罗拉多州高尔登(Golden)的新太阳能研究所。美国能源部如同保护珍贵的国家资源一样维持着这些实验室网络的完整运作。

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