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2008-08-05 11:15  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

A New Definition of Marketing.关于营销的新定义

  1.A new definition adopted by the AMA in 1985 is used as a basis for the definition of international marketing given here: international marketing is the multinational process of planning and executing the conception,pricing,promotion,and distribution of ideas,goods,and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.Only the word multinational has been added to the definition adopted by the AMA.That word implies that marketing activities are undertaken in several countries and that such activities should somehow be coordinated across nations.
  1、美国营销协会1985年采用的新定义是本文关于国际营销的定义的基础:国际营销是一种多国参与的过程,这一过程对于一些创意、产品、和服务的观念、定价、推销和分配加以规划并执行,目的在于推动交换,以实现个人和组织的目标。同美国营销协会的定义相比,此处只多了“多国”一词。该词表明,营销活动在几个国家展开。而且这些活动应该协调统一。

  2.This is not completely free of limitations.By placing individual objectives at one end of the definition and organizational objectives at the other,the definition stresses a relationship between a consumer and an organization.In effect,it excludes industrial marketing,which involves a transaction between two organizations.In the world of international marketing,governments,quasi-government agencies,and profit-seeking and nonprofit entities are frequently buyers.The definition also fails to do justice to the significance of industrial purchases.
  2、这一定义不是没有缺陷,它一方面考虑个人目标,另一方面考虑组织目标,因而强调了消费者个人同组织之间的关系。这样,就排斥了实体营销行为,即两个组织之间的交易行为。在国际营销领域,政府、半官方机构、以及赢利与非赢利实体都经常充当买家的角色。同时,这一定义也否认了实体购买的重要性。

  3.Nonetheless,the definition does offer several advantages.It closely resembles the AMA's widely and easily understood definition.In several ways,it carefully describes the essential characteristics of international marketing.First,it makes it clear what is to be exchanged is not restricted to tangible products(goods) but can include concepts and services as well.When the United Nations promotes such concepts as birth control and breast feeding,this should be viewed as international marketing.Tables1-1 and 1-2 show how two organizations promote the concept of preservation of tropical forests.Likewise,services or intangible products are just as relevant to the definition,because airline flights,financial services,advertising services,management consulting,marketing research,and so on all play a very significant role in improving the trade balance of the United States.
  3、然而,这一定义确实有自己的优点。它继承了美国营销协会的定义,深入人心,容易理解。在以下几个方面,它精到地描述了国际营销的本质特点。首先,该定义明确了用来交换的不局限于有形产品(货物),而且可以也包括观念和服务。当美国宣传象生育控制和母乳喂养等观念时,即应看成是国际营销。表1-1和1-2表明了两个组织如何推销关于保护热带森林的观念。与此相似,这一定义同样涵概了各种服务或者无形产品,因为航班服务、财务服务、广告服务、管理资讯、营销研究等等,在美国的贸易平衡中都起到非常重要的作用。

  4.Second,the definition removes the implication that international marketing applies only to market or business transactions.International nonprofit marketing,which has received only scant attention,should not be overlooked.The marketing of state governments and of religion underscores this point.State goverments are very active in marketing in order to attract foreign investment.Religion is also a big business,though most people prefer not to view it that way.Religion has been marketed internationally for centuries.Well-known exporters of religion have included Billy Graham and Jimmy Swaggart.Their television programs have been shown in many countries.Overseas trips by such figures can generate a great deal of publicity at home and abroad.
  4、其次,该定义消除了这样一种概念,即国际营销只适用于市场和商业交换。非赢利性国际营销,一直没有得到重视,但不应忽视。各国政府和宗教组织的营销行为强调了这一点。为了引进外资,各国政府往往十分热衷于营销。此外,尽管人们不愿承认,但实际上,宗教是一个很大的产业。著名的宗教传播活动家象Billy Graham和Jimmy Swaggart,他们的电视节目在许多国家播出。这些人物的海外之行能在国内外产生大量的宣传效应。

  5.Third,the definition recognizes that it is improper for a firm to create a product first and then look for a place to sell it.Rather than seeking consumers for a firm's existing product,it is often more logical to determine consumer needs before creating a product to satisfy those needs.For overseas markets,the process may call for a modified product.In some cases,following this approach may result in foreign needs being satisfied in a new way (i.e.,a brand new product is created specifically for overseas markets).
  5、第三,该定义意识到,对于一家公司来说,先生产一种产品,然后再找地方去销售,这样做是不合适的。更符合逻辑的做法是先确定消费者的需求,再生产相应产品以满足这些需求,而不能为公司的已有产品去寻找消费者。在海外市场,这一过程有时要求对产品进行改进。在有些情况下,运用这一逻辑有助于找到新的途径来满足国外市场的需求(比如,专门为国外市场生产新品牌)。

  6.Fourth,the definition acknowledges that place or distribution is just part of the marketing mix and that the distance between markets makes it neither more nor less important than other parts of the mix.Place,product,promotion,and Price-the 4 Ps of marketing-must be integrated and coordinated in order to bring about the most effective marketing mix.
  6. 第四,该定义认为地点或分配只是综合营销的一部分,市场之间的距离既不会增加,也不会减少这种综合营销中其他部分的重要性。地点、产品、推销和价格—营销中的4个P—必须是一个有机的整体,并且互相协调,以使综合营销取得最大效益。

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