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2008-08-05 10:58  来源:     我要纠错 打印 收藏   

The art of public Speaking.
公共演讲的艺术

  1. The need for effective public speaking will almost certainly touch you sometime in your life. When itdoes, you want to be ready. But even if you never give another speech in your life, you still have much to gain from studying public speaking. Your speech class will give you training in researching topics, organizing your ideas, and presenting yourself skillfully. The training is invaluable for every type of communication.
  1、在你生活的某个时刻,几乎必定需要做某种有影响力的公开演讲。当这个时刻来到时,你希望自己十分有把握。但是,即便你从未发表过一个演讲,你仍然会从学习公共演说中获益良多。你的演讲课将会在研究主题、组织思路、和表现技巧方面对你进行训练。这种训练对任何类型的交流都是非常宝贵的。

  2. There are many similarities between public speaking and daily conversation. The three major goals of speaking-to inform, to persuade, to entertain-are also the three major goals of everyday conversation. In conversation, almost without thinking about it, you employ a wide range of skills. You organize your ideas logically. You tailor your message to your audience. You tell a story for maximum impact. You adapt to feedback from your listener. These are among the most important skills you will need for public speaking.
  2、在公开演讲和日常交谈之间有许多类似的东西。演说的三个主要目的是:传达、说服、吸引,这些也是日常交谈的三个主要目的。在交谈中,你已经不假思索地使用很多技巧。你有条理地组织你的观点,你根据听众修改信息。你选择讲述某个故事以取得最大的效果。你从听众的反馈中改变自己。这些是你在公开演讲时所需要的最重要的技巧。

  3. Of course, public speaking is also different from conversation. First, public speaking is more highly structured than conversation. It usually imposes strict time limitations on the speaker, and it requires more detailed preparation than dose ordinary conversation. Second, speechmaking requires more formal language. Listeners react negatively to speeches loaded with slang, jargon, and bad grammar. Third, public speaking demands a different method of delivery. Effective speakers adjust their voices to the larger audience and work at avoiding distracting physical mannerism and verbal habits.
  3、当然,公开演说不同于交谈。首先,公开演讲比交谈要有更高的组织结构性。公开演说者通常受严格的时间限制,故此它需要比普通交谈更细致的准备。其次,公开演说需要使用正式语言。听众对充满俚语、行话、和语法错误的讲话反应消极。第三,公开演说需要用一种不同声调和姿势。有影响力的演说者调整他的声调去面对大量的观众,力求避免分散人注意力的身体习惯动作,力求避免习惯性口头语。

  4. One of the major concerns of students in any speech class is stage fright. Actually, most successful speakers are nervous before making a speech. Your speech class will give you an opportunity to gain confidence and make your nervousness work for you rather than against you. You will take a big step toward overcoming stage fright if you think positively, choose speech topics you really care about, prepare thoroughly, and concentrate on communicating with your audience. Like many students over the years, you too can develop confidence in your speechmaking abilities.
  4、在任何一个演讲教室里,学生最主要的担心之一就是怕上台。事实上,最成功的演说家在发表一场演讲之前也会紧张。你的演讲教室将给你一个获得信心的机会,让你的紧张的神经帮助你而不是阻碍你。如果你能这样积极地考虑,你将会朝着战胜怯场的方向迈进一大步:选择你真正关心的演讲主题,充分地准备,集中精力与你的听众沟通。如同过去的许多同学一样,你同样能够在你的演讲能力上提高信心。

  5. The speech communication process as a whole includes seven elements-speaker, message, channel, listener, feedback, interference, and situation. The speaker is the person who initiates a speech transaction. Whatever the speaker communicates is the message, which is sent by means of a particular channel. The listener receives the communicated message and may provide feedback to the speaker. Interference is anything that impedes the communication of a message, and the situation is the time and place in which speech communication occurs. The interaction of these seven elements is what determines the outcome in any instance of speech communication.
  5、语言交流的过程,整体而言包括七个要素:演说者、信息、沟通途径、听众、反馈、外界干扰、和现场形态。演说者是演讲事件的开始者。演说者传递的是信息,它必经某种特定沟通途径传送出去。听众接受传达到的信息,并且向演说者提供反馈。外界干扰是妨碍信息沟通的任何事物,而现场形态是演说发生的时间和地点。这七个要素的相互作用决定任何情况下演说交流的效果。

  6. Because speechmaking is a form of power, it carries with it heavy ethical responsibilities. Ethical speakers use sound means to achieve sound goals. They do this by being well informed about their subjects by being honest in what they say, by using sound evidence, and by employing valid reasoning.
  6、因为演讲是力量的一种表现形态,它承载着很重的道德责任。有道德的演说者用声音的方式去实现声音的目的。他们通过很好阐述他们的主题、通过诚实于他们所说的话、通过使用可靠的论据、以及通过正确的评论做这件事。

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